Scrutiny of Modern Philosophy of Creation of Universe Summary and Review of Twelve pages of Mysterious Universe

The pioneers of modern atomism and intended to adopt atomism with a determination to segregate its atheistic side and to adopt the purely scientific side of the theory and this they thought as possible. But time has exposed their error. The atheistic part of atomism has certainly kept its pace insidiously along with its scientific aspect. We have seen how exclusively materialistic has been Bacon’s philosophy of modern atomism, and how candidly did he throw the moral philosophy into the shade as superfluous, unwanted, even forbidden. The result of all the cleverness of Bacon in moulding his worldly philosophy has justly, rightly, logically and scientifically appeared as a burning, blazing, roaring, and braying atomic hell for the entire mankind, nay even all life on earth.

(I)       What is known:-

(a)      The sky is of too vast an extent.

(b)      The distances between the stars are very great.

(c)      Stars being balls of fire are disqualified for life due to their intense heat.

(d)      Planetary systems are rarer.

(e)      Suitable physical conditions are necessary for the appearance of life.

(f)       Life of the kind we know can exist under suitable physical conditions of light and heat.

(g)      Life exists because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun. Upsetting this balance meant the disappearance of life from earth.

(h)     The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms.

(i)       Living body consists of quite ordinary atoms, but it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or “Molecules”.

(j)       The presence of life on earth may be attributed to carbon atom for its special property of binding other atoms together.

(k)      Chemistry places life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity.

(l)       Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws.

(m)     The Creator of the universe is Omnipotent.

(n)     Physics plays incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology.

  • The end of life on earth will be through “Heat-death”.
  • WHAT IS NOT KNOWN:-
  • It is not known, how when or why the earth gave birth to life.

(b) It is not known whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that when one accident had brought the earth into being, another was necessary to produce life.

(c)      The reason why the six electron atom (Carbon) possesses the remarkable property that of binding other atoms together has not yet been fathomed by the mathematical physics. Nor has the mathematical physics as yet unravelled how magnetism depended on the peculiar properties, of the 26, 27 or 28 electron atoms. The same may be said of Radio-activity. This is a kind of a reason which resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature.

  • Whether the Creator of this universe is a magnified man-like being, or whether He is free from every anthropomorphic trace has not been decided.

(III)    WHAT IS GUESSED?

 (a)     The creation of earth as a result of the eruption of the surface of the sun caused by the tidal pull of a star wandering blindly through space and approaching the sun.

  • Accidental nature of the appearance of life on earth.
  • Idea that the universe could not have been designed primarily to produce life, since extreme variance appeared between the magnitude of the mechanism (the universe) and the amount of product ( that is life)

          In this Chapter we will subject the science, (this modern science) to a scrutiny. We will see how far its votaries have adhered to the philosophic link with the peculiarly antithetical theory of ancient Greek atomism. And we are afraid to maintain that the loyal, philosophic minded votaries of this modern science have continued in the intrinsically implicit and explicit trends of ancient atomism and have not renounced the least traces of the peculiarly atheistic doctrinal tendencies of the 500 B.C. philosophy. And we will also see in the lights of the discoveries of modern science, how far it has succeeded in giving answers to religious problems and the other questions which have haunted the human mind since times immemorial, and on which indeed depended the future of man both in this world and the other world. Science, however, has presented a dismal picture. It has indeed captured some of the material forces of nature to provide some physical comforts to man—-though it is ultimately stuck up in atomic force—but as far as the question of ultimate reality is concerned, it is nowhere near to it. But above all else we will bring the Quran into play all the while, and will subject the views of science and the philosophical scientist to its scrutiny and will know its own view regarding the views presented.

          One of our objects in this work as we have said is to find a link between the doctrines of the ancient Greek atomism, and the modern philosophic scientist. For this purpose we have selected a twelve page chapter by the name of “The Dying Sun” contained in the book “The Mysterious Universe” of Sir James Jeans. It is an amazingly master product of a giant intellect, and is superb analysis of a copulated topic by a very keen, very sublime and a very systematic mind, appearing in a compact array, and is a remarkable specimen of penmanship. What greater- honor is to be cherished by a man than a piece of his literary work be selected as an exhibit for the scrutiny of not less a divine scripture than the Quran itself. But the piece did deserve such a unique honor. Sir Jeans has in his book exposed the true picture of science as at present it appears, and has assessed its limits and limitations in providing answers to man’s philosophical question. The picture no doubt is dismal yet it is for a scientist of the caliber of Sir Jeans himself to undertake such a study and then to do justice to it. The “Mysterious Universe” of Sir Jams Jeans was published in 1930, but it is a matter of regret that no James Jeans arose after 1945, that is the year in which science appeared with its real, frightful countenance, in Hiroshima. Thanks to the unique ingenuity of Sir James jeans, that after a careful perusal of these twelve wonder pages, the universe settles before our eye to a clear, transparent, bubble universe. Therein I have noticed the term Accidental used in connection with natural phenomena; e.g., the creation of earth or the appearance of life on earth. I have strained my eyes indeed very hard in the realm of natural phenomena, yet have failed to descry the least trace of a possibility of accident in the zone of natural phenomena. The name of the accidental phenomenon does not simply exist in the long list of the natural phenomena. Set rules, set processes, inexorable and infailing, prefixed and pre-determined is the unalterable rule in the world of the laws that govern this universe. Both the factors, namely, the loss of control and the faulty system or substance which characterize the phenomenon of accident are absent in the province of natural phenomena. The term accident or accidental thus is a misnomer in any discussion connected with the functioning of the natural phenomena. The process as a result of which the earth came into being, or life on it appeared, could not have been called as accident or accidental.

It is indeed difficult to understand why scientific describer of the scientific facts should choose such unhappy term as accidental while describing the function of natural phenomena, and so should appear to insist on the use of such a word, while he could easily have avoided it: and he has used the word no doubt in contradiction to the rules of science, for, he used this word without a scientific proof to support the view. The reason simply is the inherent influence of the atheistic aspect of the philosophy of ancient atomism in the mind of our philosopher. The influence may also be traced to the traditional science-religion conflict which has always been there despite all the universal, constant and emphatic assertions to the contrary. And thus unfortunately but quite naturally a clear link between the atheistic doctrinal implications of the ancient atomism and the present state of modern atomism may be observed as established in colors that are quite vivid. The logical and scientific consequence of atomism may also be seen as the atomic hell now fast approaching with a deafening din and a maddening clamor. Inexorable sequence of inexorable laws. The end of the journey of atomism cannot be other than the atomic hell of atomic bombs and atomic radiations.

 

DOCTRINAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY OF ANCIENT GREEK ATOMISM:

Leucippus the originator, and Democritus the developer and introducer of the atomic theory were both atheists. Its odious association with the name of these founders of atomism offered a great set-back to the theory. Apart from the atheism of its founders, the theory is in fact the mother of atheism. It implies negation of design, plan, purpose, resurrection, judgment, trial, and divine government of the world. Its atheistic nature was not unknown to the people of those times in which it was advanced. The sect of Epicureans adopted this theory purely and purposely for its atheistic aspect. Plato, Aristotle and all the great contemporary thinkers of Greece opposed and condemned such a theory. Their influence being considerable, their opposition proved to be an effective check on atomism. Yet it was reserved for a scripture namely the Quran to describe the modern atomism and to give it out as the cause, and to infer from it the appearance of atomic hell that is the atomic bombs and atomic radiations, describing the characteristics of atomic phenomenon, and warning the mankind against such a danger at a time that is  in 7th century A.D. when neither a trace of ancient atomism existed in the world, nor there was any apparent possibility of its revival in the world in any successive age.

The views of early Greek atomism were:-

          “Atoms move about in all directions in a fortuitous concourse in an otherwise empty space”. This notion implies a negation of design, divine Government of the world, purpose of creation, trial of man on earth. These negations further imply the negation of the necessity of resurrection, judgment and life in heaven.

*     “Atoms are indivisible and indestructible”. This view implies the eternity of this materiel universe, and hence excludes any possibility of resurrection.

*     “The motion of atoms persists until checked presumably in collision with another atom since the theory denies any other cause”. This again appears to be an attempt to refute the idea of divine agency, since Aristotle’s view was that the hand of divine power was necessary to push the things to keep them in motion.

*     “Atoms and space are all that exists “. This is a denial of the existence of any spiritual or divine agency in the creation.

*       “The things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups”. Scientifically this view indeed bears some truth. But the philosophic intent behind it appears to be of the negation of any spiritual or divine controlling agency. The arrangement of atoms that move in a fortuitous concourse without any design or control has to be taken as accidental which implies a negation of any designing or controlling authority.

        “There are different kinds of atoms, distinguished by difference of shapes, but individual atoms are too small to be noticed by the sense”. This view is scientific and is correct, and may be taken as a beginning of the scientific research of the material universe. But surely a science based exclusively on the purpose of material benefit as the object of man’s life on earth is liable to end in material explosion.

THE ENDEAVOUR OF THE PHILOSOPHERS IN THESE TWELVE PAGES: AN ECHO OF THE ANCIENT GREEK ATOMISM

            Modern science has during its three centuries of constant struggle made a number of discoveries. As established facts and as hypotheses, and our philosopher has placed his interpretations on them. Yet out of various probable lines of interpretations, the philosopher has assumed a line that evidently appears as the echo of the doctrinal implications of early Greek atomism, implications that are basically atheistic and exact antithesis of the doctrines of revealed religion.

          Science has discovered that:-

(a)      “Our home, this earth is incredibly small in comparison to the unimaginably vast-universe-around it.

(b)      Life could exist only in zones that are utterly insignificant against the immensely vast regions of the universe incapable of producing life.

(c)      Life can only exist on the planets like earth and such planets are a rarity.

          From these facts our philosopher has argued that this universe could not have been designed primarily to produce life like our own. Had it been so, a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product could have been expected. “At first glance at least”, he says, “Life appeared as unimportant by-product. We living things are somehow off the main line”, he thought.

              Although the early Greek Atomists did not hint at this point, yet the line of the argument of our philosopher follows the same tract. The point of the insignificance of earth and life upon it will deprive man of his position of special honour on earth and in the creation, and will throw away life from its position of honour in the sight of the creator, and will thus strike at the doctrine of trial, purpose, resurrection and all the religious doctrines. It has to be observed that religion itself has assigned a very low place to the life in this world. But it has done so against the eternal life of the next world for which the sacrifice of this transient life is desirable. But what a difference exits between the two similar approaches to the same question. Our philosopher approaches to the same question. Our philosopher and the religion both regard this life insignificant. Yet our philosopher strikes at the very root of religion by calling the life insignificant, while religion strikes at the root of atheism by calling this life insignificant.

          Science has discovered that physics played an incomparably greater part in the universe than biology. From this our philosopher has inferred that unless the Creator were not a magnified man-like being activated by feelings and interests like our own, it were hard to believe that life could form a special interest of the great architect of the universe judging from the utter insignificance of life. If then life were so-insignificant in the sight of the Creator, all the doctrinal structure of revealed religion, man’s vicegerency, trial, purpose, resurrection would  stumble down and disappear a sailor who is capable of forming a link between the process of tying the knots and the design of the Creator of the universe is in the sight of our philosopher a fellow totally devoid of the faculty of imaginations, while monkeys a strumming on a type-writer unintelligibly were likely to work wonders. Plato or Aristotle would have wondered at such a philosophy appearing in an age in which man’s knowledge were regarded to have reached its utmost pinnacles.

          Our philosopher has discovered this universe as indifferent to life, so that emotion, ambition, and achievement, art and religion all were foreign to its plan. For the most part empty space was very cold, and most of the matter was extremely hot. Space was traversed, and astronomical bodies constantly bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds much of which is probably inimical to, or even destructive of life. And so our philosophy has regarded the universe as actively hostile to life like our own. He has neglected the religious doctrines of man’s trial, this world according to religion being a house of trial full of afflictions. Our philosopher, however, has regretted the mistake of man’s stumbling into such a universe. How dearly it has to be wished, that the philosopher and the scientist were half as enthusiastic in describing the horrors of atomic war and atomic radiations.

Our philosopher has regarded the appearance of life on earth as accidental. They insist so much on accidental for this the only way to exclude God’s religion from the Scene. If monkeys strumming unintelligently on typewriters infinitely could accidentally produce a book, why the millions of millions of stars wandering blindly in space for millions of millions of years could not meet with every kind of  accident including a kind which calls planetary system into being, and is fit for producing  life. How our philosopher has come to such a conclusion is known only to him, for, science has hitherto made no discovery in the light of which the accidental nature of the appearance of life could be confirmed. No, but perhaps it is by the force of habit that our philosopher has hit upon a conclusion which at once carries away with it the entire galaxy of the religious doctrines, design, purpose, trial, divine government of the world, purpose, trial divine government of the world, resurrection, judgement and life in heaven, and is a reflection of the fortuitous concourse of atoms.

          Our philosopher has spoken against the evidence of science, after science has shown that atoms are arranged in a living cell in a particular manner and according to a fixed design. Yet our philosopher has suspected that it is in a blind play of chance that the atoms might have found themselves arranged in a manner in which they are arranged in a living cell. Here the old idea of the fortuitous concourse of atoms evidently appears at play.

The only point in which our philosopher has differed from the views of ancient atomism is that of the destructibility of the universe and has anticipated the end of life through either heat-death or some celestial collision or cataclysm. But here too he has regarded the event as final. Nothing of the resurrection is said or alluded to. In fact science could give no guidance in this matter. Yet it is fundamental doctrine of religion.

As far as the question of the purpose of man’s existence is concerned, our philosopher has experienced nothing but increased bewilderment. How it is wished that Sir James Jeans had after writing his “The Mysterious Universe” in 1930, written a “ A manifest Threat to the Mysterious Universe”, in 1945, alluding to the atomic threat. What a picture would Sir James Jeans have drawn of this most burning topic due to his great ability and particular talent?

As far as the Quran is concerned, it will be seen to stand in direct opposition to these philosophic views of our philosopher. It denies accidental nature of creation and asserts a complete design and full control of the Creator, and ascribes a particular purpose to man’s existence, and teaches resurrection, and assigns a special place to earth in creation, and declares man as a creature that maintains a place of special interest in the sight of the Creator of this creation.

                              We will here show the apparent link between the doctrinal implications of the ancient atomism and the philosophy produced in these twelve pages. We will quote the twelve pages and observe that, firstly, life has been proved as unworthy of special interest of the Creator because of its comparative material insignificance, and secondly, the creation of earth and life has been given out as of accidental nature without any evidence, and thirdly nothing but bewilderment has been confessed in respect of the purpose of man’s existence, without any effort, and fourthly the end of this life has been regarded as final without so much as a mention of resurrection or the life in heaven. The limitations of science, however, have been clearly exposed.

          Any one who has read about the doctrinal implications of ancient atomism, will at once observe that just as the ancient atomism by the dint of its doctrine of the fortuitous concourse of atoms had negated the design, plan, purpose, divine government and consequently the doctrine of resurrection and the life in the other world, this our philosopher in these twelve pages has followed the same line, for, by declaring the creation of earth and life as accidental, and by assessing the life as unworthy of creator’s special interest, and by confessing bewilderment only in the case of the purpose of man’s existence, and by declaring the end of life on earth as final without in any way the mention of resurrection or the life in heaven, he has negated the design, plan, purpose, divine government, resurrection and all to prove the existence of the link between the mind of the ancient atomism and that of this present modern atomism.

          Life too insignificant to be worthy of Creator’s special interest:-

          The insignificance of earth in comparison to the total substance of the universe, and the meagreness of life against the total activity in the universe has been given to show that life could not be worthy of a special interest of the grand architect of the universe .Read:-

          We have arranged the passages of 12 pages in a manner so as to produce every individual topic in its separate continuity.

(a)      “A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth, but the majority are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare. Here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths. And the total number of stars in the Universe is probably something like the total number of the grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. Such is the littleness of our home in space, when measured up against the total substance of the Universe.    

(The Mysterious Universe page 1)

(b)      “Millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with every kind of accident; a limited number are bound to meet with the special kind of accident which calls planetary systems into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky; planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space. This rarity of planetary systems is important, because so far as we can see, life of the kind we know on earth could only originate on planets like the earth. It needs suitable physical conditions for its appearance, the most important of which is a temperature at which substances can exist in the liquid state”.                                                       

(The Mysterious Universe page 4)

(c)      “The stars themselves are disqualified by being far too hot. We may think of them as a vast collection of fires scattered throughout space, providing warmth in a climate which is at most some four degrees above absolute zero— about 484 degrees of frost on our Fahrenheit scale — and is, even lower in the vast stretches of space which lie out beyond the Milky Way. Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is a temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquid boil.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4)

(d)      “Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen; inside, it would be shrivelled up. At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of space. And even inside them, life must be of very rare occurrence for it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our own sun has done, that probably only about one star in 100,000 has a planet revolving around it in the small zone in which life is possible”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

(e)      “Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe can have been designed primarily to produce life like our own; had it been so, surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product. At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by-product; we living things are somehow off the main line”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5)

(f)       “If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds, there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity———– indeed more likely, since to all appearances physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 9)

          “The Creation of earth and the appearance of the life only accidental:-

  1. All the force is spent to prove the creation of earth and life as of a nature only accidental. The implications of such a view evidently are a denial of design, purpose, divine government, and consequently the resurrection and the life in heaven to show clearly the link extant between the mind of the ancient atomism and the modern atomism. Read the Mysterious Universe:-

(g)      “This vast multitude of stars is wandering about in space. A few form groups which journey in company, but the majority are solitary travellers. And they travel through a universe so spacious, that it is an event of almost unimaginable rarity for a star to come anywhere near to another star. For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation, like a ship on an empty ocean. In a scale model in which the stars are ships, the average ship will be well over a million miles from its nearest neighbour, whence it is easy to understand why a ship seldom finds another within hailing distance”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 1)

(h)     “We believe, nevertheless, that some two thousand million years ago this rare event took place and that a second star, wandering blindly through space happened to come within hailing distance of the sun. Just as the sun and the moon raise tides on the earth; so this second star must have raised tides on the surface of the sun. But they would be very different from the puny tides which the small mass of the moon raises in our oceans; a huge tidal wave must have travelled over the surface of the sun, ultimately forming a mountain of prodigious height, which would rise ever higher and higher as the cause of the disturbance came nearer and nearer. And, before the second star began to recede its tidal pull had become so powerful that this mountain was torn to pieces and threw off small fragments of itself, much as the crest of a wave throws off spray. These small fragments have been circulating around their parent sun ever since. These are the planets great and small of which our earth is one”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 1-2)

(i)       “Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident. The use of such a word need not imply any surprise that our earth exists, for accident will happen, and if the universe goes on for long enough every conceivable accident is likely to happen in time. It was, I think, Huxley who said that six monkeys set to strum unintelligently on typewriters for millions of millions of years, would be bound in time to write all the books in British Museum. If we examined the last page which a particular monkey had typed and found that it had by chance in its blind strumming, to type a Shakespeare Sonnet, we should rightly regard the occurrence as a remarkable accident, but if we looked through all the millions of pages which the monkeys had turned off in untold millions of years, we might be sure of finding a Shakespeare Sonnet somewhere amongst them, the product of blind play of chance. In the same way, millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with that special kind of accident which calls planetary system into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky; planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 3-4)

(j)       “We do not know whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural, and indeed inevitable, that life should come. Another holds that after one accident had brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life. The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms — carbon such as we find in soot or lamp-black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water; nitrogen, such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on. Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the new-born earth. At intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell. Indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? Or, to put it in another way, could a sufficiently skilful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of “Meccano” and then make it go? We do not know the answer, when it comes it will give us some indication whether other worlds in space are inhabited like ours, and so must have the greatest influence on or interpretation of the meaning of life — it may well produce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo’s Astronomy or Darwin’s Biology”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5-6)

And what after all was the revolution brought about by Galileo’s astronomy other than a tospsyturvification of the universe is man’s mind, and the topsyturvification of man’s mind in the universe, both in incessant rotation sans peace, sans rest, sans, sans, sans all. And what Darwin’s philosophy has done except dimming the thought of nobility in man’s mind, and as consequence changing this mankind into herds of wisdomized beasts indeed very selfish, inconsiderate, and ungrateful. And now only remains for someone to declare that life being merely the arrangement of atoms in a particular manner, it was possible to create life. That indeed will be the crowning glory and indeed the highest pinnacle of Bacon’s philosophy of man’s dominion over nature as man’s right and as man’s purpose. The birth of life will thus be given out as of a nature accidental. God’s thought will be excluded. His religion neglected. That indeed will be a great day but perhaps nearing the end and a painful one, for it is God himself who lays an exclusive claim to the dominion, while man’s claim to dominion irrespective of God’s dominion did envisage the destruction of mankind. The Quran says:-

أَوَلَمْ يَنْظُرُواْ فِى مَلَكُوتِ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَٱلأَرْضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ وَأَنْ عَسَىۤ أَن يَكُونَ قَدِ ٱقْتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمْ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ﴿١٨٥﴾

          “Have they not considered the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and what things Allah hath created, and that it may be that their own term draweth nigh? In what fact after this will they believe?

(Chapter 7; Al-Araaf; The Heights; Verse 185)

 This is very good verse of the Quran for the consideration of a humanity nearing the atomic annihilation as a result of their endeavouring to attain dominion over the nature.

(k)      “We do, however, know that while living matter consists of quite ordinary atoms, it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or Molecules.

          Most atoms do not possess this property. The atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen, for instance may combine to form molecules of Hydrogen, (H 2 or H3) of  oxygen or Ozone (O 2 or O3 )  of water  (H2 O), or of Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2O2) but none of these compounds contains more than four atoms. The addition of Nitrogen does not greatly change the situation; the compounds of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen all contain comparatively few atoms. But the further addition of Carbon completely transforms the picture; the atoms of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon combine to form molecules containing hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of atoms. It is of such molecules that living bodies are mainly formed. Until a century ago it was commonly supposed that some “vital force” was necessary to produce these and other substances which entered into the composition of the living body. Then Wholer produced Urea CO (NH2)2 which is a typical animal product, in his laboratory, by the ordinary processes of chemical synthesis, and other constituents of the living body followed in due course. Today one phenomenon after another which was at one time attributed to “vital force” is being traced to the action of the ordinary processes of Physics and Chemistry. Although the problem is still far from solution, it is becoming increasingly likely that what specially distinguishes the matter of living bodies is the presence not of a “vital force” but of the quite common place element Carbon, always in conjunction with other atoms with which it forms exceptionally large molecules”.       

(The Mysterious Universe page 6-7)

(l)       “If this is so, life exists in the universe only because the Carbon possesses certain exceptional properties. Perhaps Carbon is rather noteworthy chemically as forming a sort of transition between the metals and non-metals, but so far nothing in the physical constitution of the Carbon atom is known to account for its very special capacity for binding other atoms together. The Carbon atom consists of six electrons revolving around the appropriate central nucleus, like six planets revolving around a central sun; it appears to differ from its two nearest neighbours in the table of chemical elements, the atoms of Boron and Nitrogen, only in having one electron more than the former and one electron fewer than the latter. Yet this slight difference must account in the last resort for all the difference between life and absence of life. No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possesses these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn’t yet fathomed it”.        

(The Mysterious Universe page 7)

(m)     “Other similar cases are known to Chemistry. Magnetic phenomenon appears in a tremendous degree in Iron and in a lesser degree in its neighbours, Nickel and Cobalt. The atoms of these elements have 26, 27 and 28 electrons respectively. The magnetic properties of all other atoms are almost negligible in comparison. Somehow, then, although again, mathematical physics has not yet unravelled how, magnetisms depends on the peculiar properties of the 26, 27 and 28 electron atoms, especially the first, radio-activity provides a third instance, being confined, with insignificant exceptions, to atoms having from 83 to 92 electrons; again we do not know why”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 7-8)

(n)     “Thus Chemistry can only tell us to place life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity. The Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws. As a consequence of these laws, atoms having certain definite numbers of electrons, namely 6, 26 to 28 and 83 to 92, have certain special properties, which show themselves in the phenomena of life, magnetism and Radio-activity respectively. An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws. If some other set of laws had been chosen, other special atoms might have had other special properties associated with them. We cannot say what, but it seems a priori unlikely that either radioactivity or magnetism or life would have figured amongst them. Chemistry suggests that, like magnetism and radioactivity, life may merely be an accidental consequence, of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 8)

(o)      “Again the word “Accidental” may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one special set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this was His way of Creating life? So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except perhaps by the remark, that when a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed. If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 8-9)

 (p)     “A trivial analogy may exhibit the situation in a clearer light. An un-imaginative sailor accustomed to tying knots might think it would be impossible to cross the ocean if tying knots were impossible. Now the capacity for tying knots is limited to space of three dimensions, no knot can be tied in a space of 1, 2, 4, 5 or any other number of dimensions. From this fact our unimaginative sailor might reason that a beneficent Creator must have had sailors under his special patronage; and have chosen that space should have three dimensions in order that tying knots and crossing the ocean should be possibilities in the universe. He had created—-in brief space was of three dimensions, so that there could be sailors. This and the argument outlined above seem to be much on a level, because life as a whole and the tying knots are pretty much on a level in that neither of them forms more than an utterly insignificant fraction of the total activity of the materiel universe”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 9-10)

          We are at a loss to decide where the sailor in question or the philosopher who should produce a philosophy such as this is more unimaginative. What, it may be wondered, our philosopher has there to falsify the sailor’s notion in question, except by calling him an unimaginative, and that indeed by violating the sense of the English word Imagination which means mental faculty forming images of external objects, not present to the sense, and creative faculty of mind. It is this sailor in question that has formed up an imaginative link between the knots he ties and the mind of the Creator of the universe, as against this philosopher who can see nothing beyond the Accident of the accidental nature of earth’s creation, and has nothing but bewilderment in the purpose of man’s existence. Which of these two is more un-imaginative? Damned in one’s sight might appear both the science as it has been shown and the philosophy which has been evolved from it.

Material insignificance of earth and life to imply (according to the scientist philosopher) absence of design, purpose and order and interest on the part of the Creator:-

(1)      Grandeur of the Universe against the tiny earth:-

” A few stars are known”, says the Unscientific scientist Philosopher,” which are hardly bigger than the earth, but the majority are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare; here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths. And the total number of the stars in the universe is probably something like the total number of the grains of sand on all the sea shores of the world. Such is the littleness of our home in space when measured up against the total substance of the universe”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 1)

And:-

THE AREA IN WHICH LIFE CAN EXIST TOO SMALL:-

“The stars themselves are disqualified” (for the existence of life) by being too hot. We may think of them as a vast collection of fires scattered throughout space, providing warmth in a climate which is at most some four degrees above absolute zero-about 484 degrees of frost on our Fahrenheit scale-and is even lower in vast stretches of space which lie out beyond the Milky Way. Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is a temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquids boil”.

(The Mysterious Universe Page 4)

“Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen, inside it would be shriveled up. At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of the space. And even inside them, life must be of a very rare occurrence. For it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our own sun has done that probably only about one star in 100.000 has a planet revolving round it in the small zone in which life is possible”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

And:-

 “Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe can have been designed primarily to produce life like our own; had it been so, surely we might have expected to find a better proportion, between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product. At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by-product; we living things are somehow off the main line”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5-6)

  • Now, according to the Quran, the stars are not at all meant to be the habitations of life, they are there either to beautify the world or are signs for guiding the men in darkness on land and in the sea. The earth alone is meant to be the abode of life and it is according to the Quran well suited for this purpose and is large enough. The Quran’s advice therefore against the misleading notion of the Unscientific Philosopher in the form of a direct rebuttal is:-

يٰعِبَادِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوۤاْ إِنَّ أَرْضِى وَاسِعَةٌ فَإِيَّاىَ فَٱعْبُدُونِ ﴿٥٦﴾ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ ٱلْمَوْتِ ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ﴿٥٧﴾ وَٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّالِحَاتِ لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ ٱلْجَنَّةِ غُرَفَاً تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا نِعْمَ أَجْرُ ٱلْعَامِلِينَ﴿٥٨﴾ ٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ﴿٥٩﴾

“O my bondmen who believe! Lo! My earth is spacious. Therefore serve me only. Unto us ye will be returned. Those who believe and do good work them verily we shall house in lofty dwellings of the garden underneath which rivers flow. There they will dwell secure; how sweet the guerdon of the toilers, who preserve and put their trust in their Lord”. 

(Chapter 29; Al-Ankabut; the Spider; Verse 56-59)

                             Thus we see that lofty dwellings are to be expected in the next world by the righteous. This present world is but a temporary abode and is but a base for the trial. A complaint about smallness of earth or the smallness of the zones that could bear life in this universe is baseless. But please mark not only in this instance but thereafter, everywhere, how aptly the Quran furnishes the answer and how completely as if it did anticipate the point of the unscientific philosopher beforehand, or had prepared the answer like a living mind after the question was put to it. The Quran has claimed to contain every example and it is hoped that even within these few pages sufficient proofs would be found to justify the Quran’s unusually great claim.

(b)      This life contemptible alike in the sight of the Quran but very important as the sowing field for the other world:-

          If this life is contemptible in the sight of the scientist, it also is contemptible in the sight of the Quran and is so, exactly on the same ground i.e. its triviality and its transitoriness. But whereas the scientist has cast it away as worthless, and has considered its end as the final end with no possibility of its revival and therefore of resurrection, judgment and the other world, the Quran declares this life as the sowing season of the crop of deeds to be reaped in the next world, and hence keeps constantly exhorting to better deeds and warns of the dire consequences of misdeeds or negligence. Misdeeds beget a hell even in this present life, yet the next world is the real object while this present life is only a deceitful provision. The Quran’s view is:-

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ ٱلْمَوْتِ وَإِنَّمَا تُوَفَّوْنَ أُجُورَكُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَامَةِ فَمَنْ زُحْزِحَ عَنِ ٱلنَّارِ وَأُدْخِلَ ٱلْجَنَّةَ فَقَدْ فَازَ وَما ٱلْحَيَاةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا إِلاَّ مَتَاعُ ٱلْغُرُورِ﴿١٨٥﴾

“Every soul will taste of death and ye will be paid on the day of resurrection only that ye have fairly earned. Whoso is removed from the fire of hell and is made to enter paradise، he indeed is triumphant. The life of this world is but a deceitful provision”.      

(Chapter 3; Al-Imran; Family of Imran; Verse 185)

(c)      The garden as vast and as spacious as the whole heaven for the righteous:-

          This earth and the life upon it is congested, constricted and unpleasant, but let it be. This is not your permanent abode. And for the righteous, there is prepared a garden in the heaven, as wide and a spacious as the whole of the heaven and the earth. The Quran says:-

سَابِقُوۤاْ إِلَىٰ مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا كَعَرْضِ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلأَرْضِ أُعِدَّتْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ذٰلِكَ فَضْلُ ٱللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَآءُ وَٱللَّهُ ذُو ٱلْفَضْلِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ﴿٢١﴾

“Race one with another for forgiveness from your Lord, and a garden, whereof the breadth is as the breadth of the heaven and the earth, which is in store for those who believe in Allah and His messengers”.

(Chapter 57; Al-Hadid; The Iron; Verse 21)

          Those who complain about the smallness of the earth and the insignificance of this life, and make it an issue for disbelief in design، purpose and resurrection, shall see that the place of unbelievers in the next world is going to be even more congested and more unpleasant, but the righteous shall have a far better abode to live. The Quran says:-

وَإِذَآ أُلْقُواْ مِنْهَا مَكَاناً ضَيِّقاً مُّقَرَّنِينَ دَعَوْاْ هُنَالِكَ ثُبُوراً﴿١٣﴾ لاَّ تَدْعُواْ ٱلْيَوْمَ ثُبُوراً وَاحِداً وَٱدْعُواْ ثُبُوراً كَثِيراً﴿١٤﴾ قُلْ أَذٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ أَمْ جَنَّةُ ٱلْخُلْدِ ٱلَّتِى وُعِدَ ٱلْمُتَّقُونَ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ جَزَآءً وَمَصِيراً﴿١٥﴾ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا مَا يَشَآءُونَ خَالِدِينَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ وَعْداً مَّسْئُولاً﴿١٦﴾

“When they (the disbelievers) are flung into a narrow place thereof (in the hell) chained together, they pray for destruction. Pray not for destruction that day, but pray for much destruction! Say: is that (doom) better or the garden of immortality which is promised unto those who ward off (evil)? It will be their reward and journey’s end; therein abiding (for ever) they have all that they desire. It is for thy Lord a promise that must be fulfilled”.         

(Chapter 25; Al-Furqan; The Criterion; Verse 13-16)

(2)     Chance Creation:-

          The earth according to our unscientific scientist philosopher has appeared as the result of an accident and the life to him is a product of blind play of chance. How could then, design, purpose, meaning or reason is assigned to such a creation, which is merely accidental and is a product of blind play of chance. It indeed is something wonderful to hear from a person (who calls himself a scientist), such worlds as chance creation and accidental in connection with natural phenomena. The Quran however has based the creation, the whole of the creation on a purpose and design under strict and uninterrupted vigilance of the Creator. A Creator showing ample interest even in the most insignificant of all the things in this world. But Alas! For the dark veil of disbelief and scepticism.

(a)  Blind play of Chance:-

The Unscientific Philosopher says:-

“Into such a (terrifying) universe we have stumbled if not exactly by mistake at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident. The use of such a word need not imply any surprise that our earth exits, for accidents will happen and if the universe goes on for long enough every conceivable accident is likely to happen in time. It was, I think, Huxley who said that six monkeys set to strum unintelligently on typewriters for millions of millions of years; would be bound in time to write all the books in the British Museum. If we examine the last page which a particular monkey had typed and found that it had by chance in its blind strumming, to type a Shakespeare Sonnet, we should rightly regard the occurrence, as a remarkable accident, but if we looked through all the millions of pages the monkeys had turned off in untold millions of years, we might be sure of finding a Shakespeare sonnet somewhere amongst them, the product of the blind play of chance. In the same way millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with every kind of accident and such logic may rightly be regarded as Monkeyish “.

(The Mysterious Universe page 3-4)

(b)  The scientist philosopher doubtful himself of chance Creation:-

“We do not know”, says our unscientific philosopher “whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural and indeed almost inevitable, that life should come. Another holds that after one accident had brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life. The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms -Carbon such as we find in soot or lamp – black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water, nitrogen such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on. Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the newborn earth: At intervals, a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell. Indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? Or, to put in another way, could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of “MECCANO”, and then make it go? We do not know the answer, when it comes it will give us some indication whether other worlds in space are inhabited like ours and so must have the greatest influence on our interpretation of the meaning of life. It may well produce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo’s Astronomy or Darwin’s Biology”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5-6)

(c)   The birth of earth accidental according to the scientist:

“We believe nevertheless, that some two thousand million years ago this rare event took place and that a second star wandering blindly through space, happened to come within the hailing distance of the sun. Just as the sun and moon raise tides on the earth, so this second star must have raised tides on the surface of the sun. But they would be very different from the puny tides which the small mass of the moon raises in our oceans, a huge tidal wave must have traveled over the surface of the sun, ultimately forming a mountain of prodigious height which would rise ever higher and higher as the cause of the disturbance came nearer and nearer. And before the second star began to precede, its tidal pull had become so powerful that this mountain was torn to pieces and threw off small fragments of itself, much as the crest of a wave throws off spray. These small fragments have been circulating around their parent sun ever since. They are the planets great and small, of which our earth is one”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 1-2)

No possibility of accident or chance in the hands of God. Please mark the tone in all these previous passages of the unscientific philosopher; passages which are concerned with accidental nature of creation and the blind play of chance. The tone is that of uncertainty throughout and the whole stuff is of a nature hypothetical, conjectural, speculative and doubtful, and not at all in conformity with the spirit of hardheaded, matter of fact and uncompromising science.

          The use of the word “Accidental” in this particular context, that is an act of creation where the Creator himself and the laws of nature are concerned, cannot be allowed. We never thought to the moment of our acquaintance with the unscientific philosopher, that it was in the dullness of human nature not to realize that there cannot be anything accidental about a natural phenomenon. Neither the Creator nor the natural laws can ever be found dizzy, drunk, ignorant or helpless to allow an accident, even a possibility of an accident. The very moment these natural laws showed signs of infirmity, the universe will certainly be disrupted. It is we mortals that are prone to be involved in accident, because of our frailties, our ignorance, our lack of intelligence and our helplessness. Accident can never take place, unless some flaw appears somewhere, somehow but how an accident can happen where God is on the control himself. While discussing therefore, natural phenomena or anything, which is, in direct control of the Creator phenomenally, the use of such a word as {accident} is a fallacy, even blasphemy. There is no room for accident in natural phenomena. A bomb may explode accidentally. But the accident has happened due to some fault or negligence. The rules and the laws which govern the explosion will never fail, or change their role. They simply know no accident and they function according to established laws. The bomb which exploded accidentally did proceed through the process in perfect accordance with the pre-established laws. Nay even the causes of the accident follow the laws. If, however, our unscientific philosopher means to exclude the design and purpose from the creation and in order to exclude the design and purpose he is obliged to exclude the presence of the Creator- and it indeed is for this very purpose that he has taken all this trouble, that of bringing in all these fanciful terms like accidentals and blind-chances, by- products and the lack of proportions-then he must know that he has failed and failed miserably in his attempt and that despite our deep regret we are obliged to tell him so. The design and purpose stands on a far stronger footing to be dislodged by such trivialities. Accidents can happen in the hands of a cab-driver, but the keys of havens and earth are not in the hands of cab-driver, they are in the hands of an Omniscient, Omnipresent and Omnipotent Creator, and so says the Quran:-

لَّهُ مَقَالِيدُ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَٱلأَرْضِ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـآيَاتِ ٱللَّهِ أُوْلَـٰئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْخَاسِرُونَ﴿٦٣﴾

“His are the keys of the heavens and the earth, and they who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, such are they who are the losers”.         

(Chapter 39; Az-Zumar; The Groups; Verse 63)

          And He is neither dizzy nor ignorant, to allow an accident, but He is the exceptional hearer and the seer. The Quran says:-

سُبْحَانَ ٱلَّذِى أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً مِّنَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ إِلَىٰ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلأَقْصَى ٱلَّذِى بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَآ إِنَّهُ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلبَصِيرُ﴿١﴾

“Lo! He, only He is the Hearer the Seer”.    

(Chapter 17; Al-Isra; The Night Journey; Verse 1)

And He is neither as weak nor helpless as to be involved in an accident. The Quran says:-

فَلَمَّا جَآءَ أَمْرُنَا نَجَّيْنَا صَالِحاً وَٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَعَهُ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِّنَّا وَمِنْ خِزْىِ يَوْمِئِذٍ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ ٱلْقَوِىُّ ٱلْعَزِيزُ﴿٦٦﴾

“Lo! Thy Lord. He is the strong the mighty”.        

(Chapter 11; Hud; Hud; Verse 66)

And that:-

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ ٱلْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَآ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى ٱلْبَرِّ وَٱلْبَحْرِ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِى ظُلُمَاتِ ٱلأَرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِى كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ﴿٥٩﴾

“With Him are the keys of the invisible, none but He knoweth them. And He knoweth what is in the land and the sea. Not a leaf falleth but He knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or dry, but (it is noted) in a clear record”.             (Chapter 6; Al-Anaam; The Cattle; Verse 59)

          The unscientific philosopher says,” Millions of millions of stars blindly wandering for millions of years are bound to meet with an accident”, but the Quran is of the opinion, that nothing happens without the will of the Creator, the stars cannot meet with an accident, until Allah willed it, but then it will not be called an accident, but an incident. It is to be wondered why the unscientific philosopher should prefer the word “Accident” to ‘’incident” so unreasonably. The Quran says:-

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ هَلْ مِن شُرَكَآئِكُمْ مَّن يَفْعَلُ مِن ذٰلِكُمْ مِّن شَيْءٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ﴿٤٠﴾

“It is not expedient that the sun should overtake the moon in her course, nor doth the night overstep the day, they float each in an orbit”.      

(Chapter 30; Ar Room; Romans; Verse40)

          No chance business, but an unfailing administration of Allah. Quran says:-

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى رَفَعَ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمْسَ وَٱلْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِى لِـأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّـى يُدَبِّرُ ٱلأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ ٱلآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَآءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ﴿٢﴾

“He ordereth the course. He detailedth the revelations, that haply ye may be certain of the meeting with your Lord”.                  

(Chapter 13; Ar-Raad; The Thunder; Verse 2)

          The Universe stands firm. No possibility of accident. If ever the universe shall fall, it shall fall by the will of Creator. The Quran says:-

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلأَرْضِ وَٱلْفُلْكَ تَجْرِى فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ بِأَمْرِهِ وَيُمْسِكُ ٱلسَّمَآءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى ٱلأَرْضِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِٱلنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ﴿٦٥﴾

“He holdeth back the heaven from falling on the earth unless by His leave”.                           (Chapter 22; Al-Hajj; The Pilgrimage; Verse65)

And that:-

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَٱلأَرْضَ أَن تَزُولاَ وَلَئِن زَالَتَآ إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيماً غَفُوراً﴿٤١﴾

“Verily God sustaineth the heaven and the earth, lest they fail; if they should fail, none could support the same besides Him”.                 

(Chapter 35; Al-Faatir; The Originator; Verse 41)

          Allah always mindful of His creation. No blind chance business. No question of accident. The Quran says:-

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعَ طَرَآئِقَ وَمَا كُنَّا عَنِ ٱلْخَلْقِ غَافِلِينَ﴿١٧﴾

“And we are never unmindful of our creation”.              

(Chapter 23; Al-Muminoon; The Believers; Verse 17)

          The Unscientific philosopher speculated that atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in a living cell and might become alive, without the knowledge or control of the Creator but the Quran holds a different view. It says:-

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِى شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُواْ مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلاَ تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلاَّ كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُوداً إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِى ٱلأَرْضِ وَلاَ فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَلاَ أَصْغَرَ مِن ذٰلِكَ وَلاۤ أَكْبَرَ إِلاَّ فِى كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ﴿٦١﴾

“And not an atom’s weight in the earth or in the sky escapeth your Lord, nor what is less than that or greater than that, but it is (written) in a clear book”.

(Chapter 10; Younas; Younas; Verse 61)

(3)     Galileo’s Astronomy:-

          Our unscientific philosopher has rightly remarked that Galileo’s astronomy has affected a great revolution of thought. Indeed a revolution. A revolution not of thought only but the revolution of earth also along with the revolution of mind. That is, the mind of man was at comparative rest when the earth was considered as stationary. But later, when it was believed that the earth was in rotation, mind of man also assumed rotation along with the earth. Since that day, peace has left the mind and the mind is in constant revolution. The discovery of Galileo might mean much to the Astronomers, for the ease it has brought in their system, but to the humanity in general he did no more than a topsyturvification of the former Ptolemic system. That is whereas Ptolemy held the earth at rest by his right hand and moved the firmament with his left around the earth, Galileo after his life-long watching, held the sun stationary by his left hand and moved the earth around the sun by his right. This fact so trivial in itself has indeed Topsy-turveyed the whole world. It caused a science-religion conflict as fierce as rent the heavens of humanity mind. It has reversed the entire outlook of man. It has snatched away all the peace and rest from human mind. It is like a man walking on his hands, head down, and legs up like an acrobat. The denizens of this earth who before the discovery of earth’s motion had gone about their business with confidence that the earth beneath their feet, was at rest and reliable; are now seen in their hard Endeavour to catch up with the furiously racing earth, they being mercilessly tossed about; their bellies convulsed by the jerks and jumps, their hats flying backwards in the fierce back-rush of wind and they with their mouths wide open struggling to keep their balance, rising and falling alternately. And when we view the topsyturvification of the affair of Galileo’s astronomy, we are reminded of a verse of the Quran, which reads:-

أَفَمَن يَمْشِى مُكِبّاً عَلَىٰ وَجْهِهِ أَهْدَىٰ أَمَّن يَمْشِى سَوِيّاً عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ﴿٢٢﴾

          “Is he, therefore, who goeth groveling upon his face, better directed than he who walketh upright in a straight way?”?             

(Chapter 67; Al-Mulq; The Kingdom; Verse 22)

          It is amusing to observe Milton, in the midst of a raging controversy about the rotation of earth, chanting his worthy verse and wonderful thought in so detached a manner. He said:-

“What if the sun

Be centre to the world, and other stars

by his attractive venture and their own

incited, dance about him various rounds?

Their wandering course, now high, now low, now hid,

Progressive, retrogressive or standing still,

In six thou sesest and what if seventh to these,

the planet earth, so steadfast through the seem,

insensibly three different motions move”.

(The Paradise Lost Book VIII)

The Quran says also an astonishingly so:-

قُل لِّمَنِ ٱلأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهَآ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ﴿٨٤﴾ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ﴿٨٥﴾ قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ ٱلسَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ﴿٨٦﴾ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ﴿٨٧﴾ قُلْ مَن بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ﴿٨٨﴾ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّىٰ تُسْحَرُونَ﴿٨٩﴾

“Say, unto whom (belongeth) the earth and whosoever is therein, if ye have knowledge? They will say unto Allah. Say; will ye not then remember? Say. Who is the Lord of seven heavens and lord of tremendous throne? They will say, Unto Allah (all that belongeth). Say, will ye not then keep duty (unto him)? Say. In whose hand is the dominion over all things and He protecteth, while against him there is no protection, if ye have knowledge? They will say. Unto Allah all that belongeth. Say. How then are ye bewitched”?

(Chapter 23; Al-Muminoon; The Believers; Verse 84-89)

          Now whether the earth moved around the sun or the sun moved around the earth, or both moved around each other in advance, or whether earth moved from west to east or east to west, what should all this mean to us mortals who have but to sojourn for a while in the earth and then leave it as strangers? The significance has to be attached to Him who owns all this. The real master. And our ability, entity, genius and power be directed towards finding out the reality of Him who created all this we see, touch, taste, hear and smell but fail to understand further the ultimate reality. And let the Creator be the object of our search, whether through His material works, the object of our senses or through the inner world of mind, for that also is a world in itself, complete. Or else we die, all of us, and our boat sinks in atomic hell. To me Galileo appears in reference to his theory-just as the Quran has in these pages hinted-going on his hands with head down and legs upward. Nor has his discovery put a groat in the pocket of anyone of his ardent followers.  Albeit the Bible has been supposed to have been contradicted, if any joy could have been for any one in that supposition.

(4)     Darwin’s Biology:-

          Our Unscientific philosopher tells us rightly, that Galileo’s astronomy and Darwin’s Biology created a revolution of thought. But even greater change in human outlook has been affected by Darwin’s Philosophy than Darwin’s Biology could ever have succeeded to affect. Not the Biological facts, but the implied Philosophical effect and influence of Darwin’s theory of evolution are that actually deserve our attention. Inspite of sincere and strong remonstrance of Darwin himself against the complaints of religious men about the serious damage which his philosophy was doing to faith or was prone to do in due course, the fact remains, that the anti-religious movement which commenced with Galileo’s Astronomy, rightly or wrongly, found its culmination in Darwin’s philosophy. By faith is not meant here a papal institution or a set of rituals, but rather man’s faith in divine purpose, in creator and in creator’s current vigilance and final judgment. Darwin’s Biology is not the subject. Biology is a set of laws and rules. If at first incorrectly understood, could in time find correction? And these are but rules and laws not of Darwin but of the Creator. Darwin’s inner mind and his pride in upsetting a supposed religious theory is the subject. Darwin’s philosophy that is the philosophical inferences drawn by Darwin from those rules and laws is our subject. Darwin by imputing a base origin to man and indeed without a decisive proof has done an irreparable wrong to already distressed mankind, by snatching away from them that pearl, that great power of mind, that mainstay of theirs against every mean temptation, and so, the so called humanized monkeys would do what the monkeys were by nature wont to. Indeed, a race of monkeys and not human-beings could be carried away by temptation and by folly to crease atom bombs and hell bombs for the destruction of human species, or to play the ostrich and tolerate the presence of such a monstrosity as the nuclear power after it was clearly known to be a sure harbinger of an unfailing annihilation of the whole mankind and was further a symbol of a most painful existence of humanity on earth even in its mildest forms. It is with heartfelt sorrow, that one will observe in near future the Darwinian race of humans, one and all, sitting on the roof of the world, like herds of monkeys to your horror, hastily engaged in making holes with fastest hammers and sharpest chisels amidst a din of constant titter and unending, unintelligible gibberish, rat-a-tat, manipulating hammer and chisel with such amazing dexterity as would have surprised Darwin since the monkeys of his times, as he himself has observed, lacked the ability of using hammer correctly. We are so very sorry to remark, but times are fast approaching when to Darwin’s own horror the Darwinian race of anthropoids Will be seen to drive the last nail in the coffin of humanity with a skill so unusual, as would touch Darwin’s heart so deeply and the gloomy spectacle would bring such excessive grief to his heart, that once dried out lachrymal glands of his petrified eyes would resume lachrymose quality once more and tears would gush forth from his eyes copiously and he might easily weep to his heart’s content at the sad end of this miserable race.

          Whether Darwin’s theory of evolution is correct or not is not the question. So far it has been left without a decisive proof of any kind, and judging from the progress which hitherto has been made in that direction, it is not difficult for anyone to surmise that there exist no signs of a proof and instead the talent of Darwin’s disciples is on gradual decline. But Darwin’s work has two facets. It has biology and it has philosophy. It even has another facet that of psychology. Let no one therefore Endeavour to conclude, due to insufficient knowledge that the Quran agrees with evolution. It is very deep waters that intervene between the two and many may be doomed to drowning themselves therein without ever a hope of emerging alive. We have here neither space, nor it seems a proper occasion to do justice to this extremely difficult and unusually delicate topic. But what we can clearly say here is that so far as the philosophy of Darwin is concerned, no philosophy on earth could be more repulsive to the sense of the Quran than this philosophy of Darwin. Darwin’s philosophy is the most grievous outrage upon faith in a false guise of science. The Quran therefore has lavished due amount of attention on Darwinian views. We may not here quote much, but will endeavour to receive enlightenment by the Quran on some salient features of the subject.

          The Quran has never meant human beings to resemble monkeys. There happens to be radical difference between the nature of man and that of a monkey. The Quran has always referred to the race of monkeys with extreme contempt and unconcealed hatred. e.g. the Quran likens such men as opposed the truth and calumniated the believers on the basis of envy and mischief, to monkeys and pigs. The Quran says:-

قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِشَرٍّ مِّن ذٰلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ ٱلْقِرَدَةَ وَٱلْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّاغُوتَ أُوْلَـٰئِكَ شَرٌّ مَّكَاناً وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ﴿٦٠﴾

“Whom Allah hath cursed him on whom his wrath hath fallen! Worse is he of whose sort Allah hath turned some to apes and a swine”.

(Chapter 5; Al-Maidah;The Table; Verse60)

          The text of the Quran shows this verse directly concerned with Darwinians. There is no harm in either studying the natural science or contemplating the origin of man or of the universe. It is rather a desirable aspect. Desirable indeed it is, provided it helps to illuminate one’s mind, for there are great lessons in it for the thinking mind. But the egregious folly which Darwin has committed and consequently, incalculable wrong which he has done to wretched humanity, lay in the fact of his rash, indiscreet and imprudent act, that of depriving man’s mind of a time-honored and unfailing support, a most invaluable support psychologically, a thought of noble origin, by imputing an abject and plebeian origin to a human race. O how ill-conceived a thought, how woeful a bane, how indelible an opprobrium, and how painful a story. Bitter anti-religious feelings resulting from a continued oppression by a tyrannical church as the Christian writers in most lamenting tones forever tell- ran wild at the cruel site of Bruno’s burning pyre and were further fanned by the story of forced recantations of poor, blind aged and haggard Galileo in Rome and culminated in convulsive pangs of Darwin’s evolutionary gastrics to a real misfortune of humanity, a poor miserable humanity shifted but from the hands of the inimical priest to the hands of even a more inimical community namely, that of benign scientists who had in store for mankind even more grievous calamities than those experienced on the hands of Priest, so much so that the atrocities perpetuated on Christianity by the servants of the Church were to be far out shadowed by the atrocities to be perpetuated by the servants of the whole mankind, that is the kindly men of science, amongst whom Darwin stood most or at least one of the most outstanding, as the most illustrious killer of human mind. The accumulations of atrocities, eccentricities, excesses, tyrannies and corruptions, both actual and fabled, of all the churches, temples, pagodas and synagogues united would vanish before the heat flash of a single atomic bomb, and if nothing is ever done to bring back faith to humanity, no prophetic genius of Cassandra is needed to foretell the miserable doom which awaits human species.

          But let us revert to our Friend Darwin. Had Darwin been endowed with a little wisdom, he would never have pursued the matter so far back into the dark, so far back into the regions, where  no scientific proof could be had to support the theory, and mere speculation were the only guide. Indeed judging from the seriousness of the subject he ought to have desisted. Nay even if the evolution were probable truth, we can say, without in any way giving much offense to the spirit of inquiry, that it was far better for Darwin to conceal the fact from the eyes of humanity until proved in view of, that irreparable damage which the disclosure of such a fact was sure to do to humanity, in case man’s origin were not truly and incorrigibly base. It was in the interest of mankind itself, that the ugly conjecture was prudently concealed. For, a lot of good is done to those and by those who think their origin to be noble. It would do to any bastard himself ignorant of the stigma, not at all any good to tell him the fact of his base origin. A bastard by birth may turn bastard in conduct after the grim fact may come to his knowledge and has maddened his mind heavy with hatred. But if Darwin had felt adamant, then in true character of a scientist, he must have bound himself to fetch the proof, and then only ought to have spoken of his sadly amusing tale of humanity’s lost tail, we say, the nuclear power is a truth. A truth well supported by proof. If then tomorrow humanity is inevitably consumed by that truth, what good the discovery of such a truth did to humanity. They shall curse the day when such a truth as this was discovered. We will stake our knowledge of Darwin’s philosophy and tell the whole innocent world, that Darwin and his disciples have most miserably failed to fetch a scientific proof of any kind whatever. It is all no more than a wretched day-dreaming of a sick, wandering mind. We ask with all the possible solemnity, “Is Darwin’s theory of evolution a truth. Has it been proved? If so how and where? So nefarious a theory must never have been made public without first having found the proof of it. I believe I am vexing a little harsh, but, do a thing which brings such destruction, deserve softness. There might be someone who would perhaps be a little displeased at such a treatment of Darwin, but, I say, why hose sympathizers of evolution do not exert to find a proof, a final  decisive proof, of that theory and raise Darwin to a place of respect. A few rotten fossils will not do to prove so formidable a Leviathan as origin. Is there any hope of a theory finding a proof when the disciples of the origin master would not be even able fully to understand, what their master did say? These disciples of Darwin do themselves confess. We do however believe that Darwin’s philosophy has been proved in one way at least just as certainly as the atomic nuclear theory has displayed its proof in Hiroshima. And that proof of Darwin’s philosophy is most vividly manifest in the ruins of the Hiroshima of human mind, since that philosophy has paid its visit to this once flourishing city. Darwin’s theory is only the wishful realization of their dream of freedom from religion.

          And now, after this little diversion let us assume comparison of Darwin’s philosophy with that of the Holy Quran. The example which presents a most typical contrast of the two philosophies that of Darwin and the Quran is that of a martyr. A martyr according to the Darwinian standards of survival is utterly unfit for survival and therefore a failure, since he was unable to live and he died. Whereas according to Quran’s philosophy martyr has proved to be something even more than those fittest for survival. He has attained immortality. The cycle of Darwin’s philosophy is confined only to this material world but that of the Quran extends to the next world. Before we cite the Quran, let me say, that no man ever will know the origin, just as no man will ever be able to know the end of the world. Speculations only will be made. But let us begin with the Quran. The Quran says:-

وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمْوَاتاً بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ﴿١٦٩﴾ فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ آتَاهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِنْ  فَضْلِهِ وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِمْ مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلاَّ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ﴿١٧٠﴾ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لاَ يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴿١٧١﴾

“Think not of those who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead. Nay, they are living. With their Lord they have provision. Jubilant (are they) because of that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind: that there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. They rejoice because of favor from Allah, and kindness and that Allah wasteth not the wage of believers”.

(Chapter 3; Al-Imran; Family of Imran; Verse 169-171)

          In view of the importance of the subject of origin, both of man and of the universe, the Quran has given appropriate attention to it, and has vouchsafed it a considerable portion. The significance of the topic is apparent from the fact of the great notoriety, which Darwin enjoyed due merely to his choice of the topic. But whereas Darwin has imputed to man a very low origin that of a monkey or some very low animal, Quran has attributed to man, a very noble origin basically, superior even to angels, says the Quran:-

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاۤئِكَةِ ٱسْجُدُواْ لِـآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوۤاْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِّنَ ٱلسَّاجِدِينَ﴿١١﴾

“We created you, then fashioned you, then told the angels: Fall ye prostrate before Adam! And they fell prostrate, all save Iblis, who was not of those who make prostration”.                                               

(Chapter 7; Al-Araaf; The Heights; Verse 11)

God breathed his own soul in man, says the Quran:-

ذٰلِكَ عَالِمُ ٱلْغَيْبِ وَٱلشَّهَادَةِ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ﴿٦﴾ ٱلَّذِيۤ أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ ٱلإِنْسَانِ مِن طِينٍ﴿٧﴾ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلاَلَةٍ مِّن مَّآءٍ مَّهِينٍ﴿٨﴾ ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلسَّمْعَ وَٱلأَبْصَارَ وَٱلأَفْئِدَةَ قَلِيلاً مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ﴿٩﴾

“Such is the knower of the invisible and the visible, the mighty, the merciful; who made all things good which He created and began the creation of man from clay. Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid, then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit, and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks ye give”.                

(Chapter 32; As-Sajdah; The Prostration; Verse 6-9)

Man’s origin noble but may stoop to the worst. Says Quran:-

لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا ٱلإِنسَانَ فِيۤ أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ﴿٤﴾ ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَاهُ أَسْفَلَ سَافِلِينَ﴿٥﴾ إِلاَّ ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ﴿٦﴾

“Surely we created man of best stature. Then reduced him, to the lowest of the low. Save those who believe and do good works and theirs is a reward unfailing”.                                 (Chapter 95; At-Tin; The Fig; Verse 4-6)

                    This again is another point of great difference between the philosophy of Darwin and the Quran. The fitness of Darwinian survival is confined to economic and physical fitness. But the Quran has faith and morality in view primarily as is shown above.

(5)     Lack of Creator’s Interest in Life:-

          Our unscientific philosopher says the Creator of so great a universe cannot be expected to have special interest in so tiny a thing as this life on earth. This he has deduced from the difference of material magnitude existing between the universe and the earth and the difference between the total activity of the universe and of life. He has shown the incomparable prodigiousness of the universe in comparison to the puniness of the earth. He has held to his view the colossal material activity of the universe as against the extremely little material activity of life and on this basis has inferred that life could not be expected to form any special interest of the Creator. But a great fact he has left completely out of sight, namely that the whole of the universe constantly is engaged in the service of life on earth. However, our unscientific philosopher says regarding Creator’s lack of interest in life. He says:-

“Again the word “Accidental” may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one especial set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this was his way of creating life? So long as, we think of the Creator as a magnified manlike being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except by the remark that, when, such a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed. If, however, we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds, there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity-indeed more likely, since to all appearance Physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from strictly material stand point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms special interest of the great architect of the universe “.

(The Mysterious Universe- page 8-9)

Now the Quran complains that they overlook the fact that of the whole of this universe having been engaged in their service and still think life to be insignificant, in order that they may prove themselves free from their allegiance to their God, by attributing to God, no interest in life on earth. The Quran says:-

أَلَمْ تَرَوْاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلأَرْضِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعَمَهُ ظَاهِرَةً وَبَاطِنَةً وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِى ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَابٍ مُّنِيرٍ﴿٢٠﴾

“See ye not how Allah hath made serviceable unto you whatever is in the skies and whatever is in the earth and hath loaded you with his favors both without and within? Yet of mankind is he who disputeth concerning Allah, without knowledge or guidance or scripture giving light”.      

(Chapter 31; Ar-Rum; The Romans; Verse 20)

          Now, is not this answer of the Quran oracular in character? Is it not astonishingly appropriate and complete? And why do you forget everything and you call to God for help, when some harm comes to you in sea, if you think that He has no special interest in you. The Quran says:-

وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدْعُونَ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاكُمْ إِلَى ٱلْبَرِّ أَعْرَضْتُمْ وَكَانَ ٱلإِنْسَانُ كَفُوراً﴿٦٧﴾

“And when harm toucheth you upon the sea, all whom ye cry for succour are forgotten (by you), except Him along”.                 

(Chapter 17; Al-Isra; The Night Journey; Verse 67)

And:-

قُلْ مَن يُنَجِّيكُمْ مِّن ظُلُمَاتِ ٱلْبَرِّ وَٱلْبَحْرِ تَدْعُونَهُ تَضَرُّعاً وَخُفْيَةً لَّئِنْ أَنجَانَا مِنْ هَـٰذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلشَّاكِرِينَ﴿٦٣﴾

“Say, who delivereth you from the darkness of the land and the sea? Ye call upon Him humbly and in secret”.                          

(Chapter 6; Al-Anaam; The Cattle; Verse 63)

(6)     Purpose:-

          Our unscientific philosopher finding science, unable to give any guidance about man’s purpose or his origin, is bewildered by the silence of science on the subject, says He:-

“So much for the surprising manner in which, so far as science can at present inform us, we come into being: and our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origin to an understanding of the purpose of our existence or to foresee the destiny which fate has in store for our race”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10)

Unscientific philosopher says:-

“Our bewilderment is only increased regarding the purpose of our existence on earth”.

The Quran says:-

قُلْ أَنَدْعُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لاَ يَنفَعُنَا وَلاَ يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَىٰ أَعْقَابِنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا ٱللَّهُ كَٱلَّذِى ٱسْتَهْوَتْهُ ٱلشَّيَاطِينُ فِى ٱلأَرْضِ حَيْرَانَ لَهُ أَصْحَابٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى ٱلْهُدَى ٱئْتِنَا قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى ٱللَّهِ هُوَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَأُمِرْنَا لِنُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ﴿٧١﴾

“Like one bewildered whom the devils have infatuated in the earth”.

(Chapter 6; Al-Anaam; The Cattle; Verse 71)

Purpose of man’s existence according to the Quran is:-

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ ٱلْجِنَّ وَٱلإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ﴿٥٦﴾

“I (Allah) created the Jinn and humankind only that they might worship me”.

(Chapter 51; Az-Zariyah; The Scatterers; Verse 56)

Because:-

تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتُ ٱلسَّبْعُ وَٱلأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ وَإِن مِّن شَيْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدَهِ وَلَـٰكِن لاَّ تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيماً غَفُوراً﴿٤٤﴾

“The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein praise him and there is not a thing but hymneth His praise, but ye understand not their praise. Lo! He is very clement forgiving”.                  

(Chapter 17; Al-Isra; The Night Journey; Verse 44)

وَيُسَبِّحُ ٱلرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَٱلْمَلاَئِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ ٱلصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَن يَشَآءُ وَهُمْ يُجَادِلُونَ فِى ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْمِحَالِ﴿١٣﴾

 “The thunder hymneth His praise, (so do) the angels for awe of Him “.

(Chapter 13; Ar-Raad; The Thunder; Verse 13)

THE Precedent:-

The Quran says:-

أَوَ لَمْ يَرَوْاْ إِلَىٰ مَا خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ يَتَفَيَّأُ ظِلاَلُهُ عَنِ ٱلْيَمِينِ وَٱلْشَّمَآئِلِ سُجَّداً لِّلَّهِ وَهُمْ دَاخِرُونَ﴿٤٨﴾ وَلِلَّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلأَرْضِ مِن دَآبَّةٍ وَٱلْمَلاۤئِكَةُ وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ﴿٤٩﴾ يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُمْ مِّن فَوْقِهِمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ﴿٥٠﴾

“Have they not observed all things that Allah hath created, how their shadows incline to the right and to the left, making prostration unto Allah, and they are lowly? And unto Allah maketh prostration whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, of living creatures and the angels also and they are not proud, they fear their Lord above them and do what they are bidden”.

(Chapter 16; An-Nahal; The Bees; Verse 48-50)

          The purpose of life is a trial according to the Quran:-

ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلْمَوْتَ وَٱلْحَيَاةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْغَفُورُ﴿٢﴾

“God hath created life and death that He may try you, which of you is best in conduct”.                          

(Chapter 67; Al-Mulq; The Kingdom; Verse 2)

(7)     The End of the World:-

          Our unscientific philosopher laments, that life has no purpose, the universe even is not designed for life and is hostile to it. And, that we die and with our death will perish our achievements that are, we shall not be raised again and there is going to be no life in heaven. Says He:-

” Is this then, all that life amounts to stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life and which, to all appearance is either totally indifferent or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging on to a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration, and that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 11-12)

          He says that our achievements will perish with our race, and, we will leave the universe as though we had never existed, never to be raised again. But the Quran is of different view, namely, that is, their achievements will accompany them to the next world and will be assessed on the Day of Judgment and rewarded accordingly. There they shall remain forever according to their gains. Either in the hell fire eternally or in the bliss forever. The answer of the Quran to the above quoted passage of the scientist philosopher is:-

وَقَالُواْ مَا هِىَ إِلاَّ حَيَاتُنَا ٱلدُّنْيَا نَمُوتُ وَنَحْيَا وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَآ إِلاَّ ٱلدَّهْرُ وَمَا لَهُمْ بِذٰلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَظُنُّونَ﴿٢٤﴾

“And they say: There is naught but our life of the world; We die and we live and naught destroyeth us save time. When they have no knowledge whatsoever of (all) that; they do but guess”.               

(Chapter 45; Al-Jassiya; The Kneeling; Verse 24)

وَيَقُولُ ٱلإِنْسَانُ أَإِذَا مَا مِتُّ لَسَوْفَ أُخْرَجُ حَيّاً﴿٦٦﴾ أَوَلاَ يَذْكُرُ إلإِنْسَانُ أَنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَمْ يَكُ شَيْئاً﴿٦٧﴾

“And man sayeth: When I am dead shall I forsooth be brought alive? Doth not man remember that we created him before when he was naught?”

(Chapter 19; Maryam; Maryam; Verse 66-67)

Allah says:-

وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلاً وَنَسِىَ خَلْقَهُ قَالَ مَن يُحيِى ٱلْعِظَامَ وَهِىَ رَمِيمٌ﴿٧٨﴾قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا ٱلَّذِيۤ أَنشَأَهَآ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ﴿٧٩﴾

“And he hath coined for us a similitude and hath forgotten the fact of his creation, saying: Who will revive these bones, when they have rotten away? Say: He will revive them who produced them at first, for He is knower of every creation”.                           (Chapter 36; Ya.Sin; Ya.Sin; 78-79)

يُخْرِجُ ٱلْحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ ٱلْمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلْحَىِّ وَيُحْيِى ٱلأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَكَذٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ﴿١٩﴾

“He bringeth forth the living from the dead and He bringeth forth the dead from the living and He reviveth the earth after the death. And even so ye will be brought forth”.                         

(Chapter 30; Ar Room; Romans; Verse19)

وَٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِيۤ أَرْسَلَ ٱلرِّيَاحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَاباً فَسُقْنَاهُ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَأَحْيَيْنَا بِهِ ٱلأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا كَذٰلِكَ ٱلنُّشُورُ﴿٩﴾

“And Allah it is, who sendeth the winds and they raise a cloud; then we lead it unto a dead land and revive therewith the earth after its death. Such is the resurrection”.                                       

(Chapter 35; Al-Faatir; The Originator; Verse 9)

وَأَنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لاَّ رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَن فِى ٱلْقُبُورِ﴿٧﴾

“And because the hour will come there is no doubt and because Allah, will raise those who are in the graves”.                          

(Chapter 22; Al-Hajj; The Pilgrimage; Verse 7)

          Resurrection is necessary, so that injustice and wrongs done in the world of a just Creator of a universe based on justice be redressed and full justice is meted out finally. It is all in exact accordance with the laws by which this universe is being governed. Contemplation can reveal the truth of resurrection and the final judgment of Allah. The Quran says:-

إِنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا لِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَىٰ﴿١٥﴾

“Lo. The hour is surely coming, but I will keep it hidden, that every soul may be rewarded for that which it striveth to achieve”.                          

(Chapter 20; Ta-Ha; Ta-Ha; Verse15)

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْراً يَرَهُ﴿٧﴾ وَمَن يَعْـمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرّاً يَرَهُ﴿٨﴾

“And whose doth good of an atom’s weight will see it then; and whose doeth an ill of an atom’s weight will see it then”.                   

(Chapter 99; Al-Zalzalah; The Earthquake; Verse7-8)

إِنَّ ٱلأَبْرَارَ لَفِى نَعِيمٍ﴿١٣﴾ وَإِنَّ ٱلْفُجَّارَ لَفِى جَحِيمٍ﴿١٤﴾

“Lo! The righteous will verily be in delight. And Lo. The wicked verily will be in hell”.                                                                                         

(Chapter 82; Al-Infitar; The Cleaving; Verse 13-14)

وَبَشِّرِ ٱلَّذِين آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلأَنْهَارُ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُواْ مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقاً قَالُواْ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ وَأُتُواْ بِهِ مُتَشَابِهاً وَلَهُمْ فِيهَآ أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ﴿٢٥﴾

“Therein they shall abide forever”.                                                    

(Chapter 2; Al-Baqarah; The Cow; Verse 25)

The opinions of the Quran about this speculating unscientific philosopher is:-

وَمَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ ٱلظَّنَّ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّنَّ لاَ يُغْنِى مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ شَيْئاً﴿٢٨﴾

“They have no knowledge thereof. They follow but a guess and Lo. A guess can never take the place of the truth”.                           

(Chapter 53; An-Najam; The Star; Verse 28)

          Indeed, all the philosophy which our unscientific philosopher has produced in these twelve pages of the “Mysterious Universe” most of it is, only guess work and confession of ignorance. Let the scientist come up with scientific proofs of what he says, and then speak.

(8)     The Confession of an Intelligent Scientist:-

          In the following, we give the confessions of Sir James Jeans, which we have found at the end of the same book “The Mysterious Universe”. We quote here, only such of his confessions as are related to the part which we have treated hitherto from the twelve pages. Other confessions of the same author will be quoted in a proper place. These confessions have, brought him in agreement with the views of the Quran on the points concerned.

“Thirty years ago, we thought or assumed”, says Sir James Jeans:-

“That we were heading towards an ultimate reality of a mechanical kind. It seemed to consist of a fortuitous jumble of atoms, which were destined to perform meaningless dances for a time under the action of blind purposeless forces and then fall back to form a dead world. Into this wholly mechanical world, though the play of the same blind forces, life had stumbled by accident. One tiny corner at least, and possibly several tiny corners of this universe of atoms had chanced to become conscious for a time, but was destined in the end, still under the action of blind mechanical forces, to be frozen out and again leave a lifeless world.

          Today there is a wide measure of agreement, which on the physical side of science approaches almost to unanimity that the stream of knowledge is heading towards a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears like an accidental intruder into the realm of matter; we are beginning to suspect that we ought rather to hail it as the Creator and the governor of the realm of matter-not of course or individual minds but the mind in which the atoms out of which our individual minds have grown exist as thoughts.

          The new knowledge compels us to revise our hasty first impressions that we had stumbled into a universe which either did not concern itself with life or was actively hostile to life. The old dualism of mind and mater, which was mainly responsible for the supposed hostility seems likely to disappear, not through matter becoming in anyway more shadowy or insubstantial than heretofore, or through mind becoming resolved into a function of the working of matter, but through substantial matter resolving itself into a creation and manifestation of mind. We discover that the universe shows evidence of designing or controlling power which has something in common with our own individual minds-not, so for as we have discovered, emotion, morality or aesthetical appreciation, but the tendency to think in the way which, for wont of a better word, we Describe as mathematical. And while much in it may be hostile to the material appendages of life, much also is akin to the fundamental activities of life; we are not so much strangers or intruders in the universe as we at first thought. Those inert atoms in the primeval slime which first began to foreshadow the attributes of life were putting themselves, more and not less in accord, with the fundamental nature of the universe.

So, at least we are tempted to conjecture today; and yet who know how many more times the stream of knowledge may turn on itself? And with this reflection before us, we may well conclude by adding, what might well have been interlined into every paragraph that everything that has been said and every conclusion which has been tentatively put forward, is quite frankly speculative and uncertain. We have tried to discuss whether present-day science has anything to say on certain difficult questions, which are perhaps set for ever beyond the reach of human understanding. We cannot claim to have discerned more than a very faint glimmer of light at the best; perhaps it is wholly illusionary for certainly we had to strain our eyes very hard to see anything at all. So that our main contention can hardly be that the science of today has a pronouncement to make, perhaps it ought; rather to be that science should leave off making pronouncements: The River of knowledge has too often turned back on itself”.                                                          (The Mysterious Universe page 136-138)                                                   Quran:-                                                                                                  وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلرُّوحِ قُلِ ٱلرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّى وَمَآ أُوتِيتُم مِّنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً﴿٨٥﴾                                   “And of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little”.                           (Chapter 17; Al-Isra; The Night Journey; Verse 85)

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