The Views of the Quran Versus the views of early Greek Atomic Theory

Q       The view of early atomism is:-

Atoms move about in a fortuitous concourse in an otherwise empty space”.

         

The Quran allows no such fortuitous concourse of atoms, but rather everything moves under the strict vigilance and control of the Creator according to a perfect design and for an exact purpose. The Quran says:-

          “He (Allah) ordereth the course”.  (Quran XIII-2)

“Gave unto everything its nature, then guided it aright”. (Quran XX-50)

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(a). At times instead of the number of the only part of the Quran actually quoted, the number may be found to refer to a wider text in order to furnish the occasion of gaining greater understanding of the point thus referred

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          “Not an atom’s weight in the earth or in the sky escapeth your Lord, nor what is less than that or greater than that, but it is (written) in a clear book”.

                                      (Quran X-61)

    “Not a leaf falleth but He (Allah) knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or dry but (it is noted) in a clear record”.

                                      (Quran VI-59).

          “O! My dear son! though it be but the weight of a grain or mustard seed, and thought it be in a rock, or in the heavens, or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Lo! Allah is subtle, Aware”.

                                      (Quran XXXI-16)

          “And there is nothing hidden in the heaven or the earth but it is in a clear record”.

                                      (Quran XXVII-75)

          “We are never unmindful of creation”.

                                      (Quran XXXIIX-17)

          The doctrinal implications of the view of fortuitous concourse of atoms negated by the Quran:-

          Fortuitous concourse of atoms negated divine government of the world, design, process and resurrection. But the Quran has the contradictory views on these points. It says:-

          “He (Allah) directeth the ordinance from the heaven unto the earth; then it ascendeth unto him in a day, whereof the measure is a thousand years of that ye reckon. Such is the knower of the invisible and the visible, the mighty, the Merciful, who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay, then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid; then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit; and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye! And they say: when we are lost in the earth, how can we then be recreated? Nay but they are, disbelievers in meeting with their Lord”.

                                      (Quran XXXII-5-10)

          Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine command but the Quran says:-

(a)      “Unto Allah, belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. Allah is able to do all things”.

                                      (Quran III-189)

(b)      “He is the Omnipotent over his slaves, and He is the wise, The knower”.

                                       (Quran VI-18)

(c)      “Lo! Allah! Unto him belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He quicheth me and He giveth death, and ye have instead of Allah, no protecting friend, nor helper”.

                                      (Quran IX-116)

(d)  “His word is the truth, and His will be the sovereignty on the day when the trumpet is blown. Knower of the visible and the invisible. He is the wise, the aware”.

                                      (Quran VI-73)

(e)      “Allah is the creator of all things, and He is guardian over all things. His are the keys of the heavens and the earth and they who disbelieve the revelations of Allah— such are they who are losers”.

                                      (Quran XXIX-62-63)

(f)       “Your God is one God; there is no God save Him, the beneficent, the Merciful”.

                                      (Quran II-163)

(g)      “The heavens and the earth stand fast by His command, and afterwards when He calleth you, Lo! from the earth ye will emerge. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and in the earth. All are obedient unto Him. He is who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and it is easier for Him. He is the sublime similitude in the heavens and in the earth. He is the Mighty, the wise”.

                                      (Quran XXX-25-27)

(h)     “Have they not seen in the birds obedient in mid-air (made subservient to the law of Allah)? None holdeth them, Save Allah. Lo! Herein verily, are portents for a people who believe”.

                                      (Quran XVI-79)

(i)       “He unto him belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, He hath chosen no son nor hath He any partner in the sovereignty. He hath created everything and hath meted out for it a measure”.

                                      (Quran XXV-2)

(j)       “Thy Lord bringeth to pass what He willeth and chooseth. Thy have never any choice. Glorified be Allah and exalted above all that they associate (with Him)! And thy Lord knoweth their breasts conceal, and what they publish. And He is Allah; there is no God save Him. His is All praise in the former and the latter (State), and His is the command, and unto Him ye will be brought back, say : have ye thought, if Allah made night ever-lasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is a God beside Allah who could bring you light. Will ye not then hear? Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made day everlasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is of God beside Allah who could bring you night wherein ye rest? Will ye not then, see? of His Mercy hath He appointed for you night and day, that therein ye might rest, and that ye may seek his bounty, and that haply ye may be thankful”.

                                      (Quran XXVIII -68-73)

(k)      “O! company of Jinn and Men, if ye can overpass the bounds of the heavens and the earth, then overpass them. But by (our) leave only shall ye overpass them”.

                                      (Quran LV-23)

(l)       “ Lo Your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and the earth is in six days, then mounted He the throne, He covereth the night with the day, which is in the haste to follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command. His verily is the creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds”.

                                      (Quran VII-54)

          The fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine control and vigilance, while the Quran says:-

(a)      “Lo! Allah hath been a watcher over you”.

                                      (Quran IV-1)

(b)      “Lo! Allah graspeth the heavens and the earth, and they deviate not, and if they were to deviate there is not one that could grasp them after him. Lo! He is ever clement, forgiving”.

                                      (Quran XXXV-41)

(c)      “He knoweth all that entereth the earth and all that emergeth therefrom, and all that cometh down from the sky and all that ascendeth therein; and He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah is seer of what ye do”.

                                      (Quran LVII-4)

(d)      “Lo! Allah is witness over all things”.

                                      (Quran XXII-17)

(e)      “And we are not unmindful of creation”.

                                      (Quran XXIII-17)

(f)   “He is the Omnipotent over His slaves. He sendeth guardians over you”.

                                      (Quran VI-61)

          Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine order of the world. But the Quran negates this negation. It says:-

(a)      “Say, (Unto them) who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or who owneth hearing and sight; and who brings the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and who directeth the course? They will say: Allah then say, Will ye not then keep your duty (unto him)? Such then is Allah your rightful lord. After the truth what is there saving error? How then are ye turned away”.

                                      (Quran X-31-32)

  1. b) “We have neglected nothing in the book (of our decrees)”

                                      (Quran VI-38)

(c)      “It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night overstrip the day. They float each in an orbit”.

                                       (Quran XXXVI-40)

(d)      “My Lord includeth all things in His knowledge; will ye not then remember”.

                                      (Quran VI-80)

(e)      “And the sky hath He uplifted, and He hath set the measure, that ye exceed not the measure”.

                                      (Quran LV-7-8)

(f)       “And everything with Him is measured”.

                                      (Quran XIII-8)

(g)      “He it is who appointed the sun a splendour and the moon a light and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of her years, and the reckoning”.

                                      (Quran X-5)

(h)     “And for all there will be ranks from what they do, that He may pay them for their deeds”.

                                      (Quran XLVI-19)

          Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates the plan and design of the Creator. But the Quran says:-

          (a)      “Praise be to Allah, Who hath created the heavens and the earth and hath appointed darkness and light. Yet those who disbelieve ascribe rivals unto their Lord. He it is who hath created you from clay, and hath decreed a term for you. A term is fixed with Him. Yet still ye doubt”.

                                      (Quran VI-1-2)

(b)      “He hath created heavens without supports that ye can see, and hath cast not the dearth firm hills, so that it quake not with you; and hath disposed therein all kinds of beasts. And we send down water from the sky and we cause (Plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein”.

                                      (Quran XXXI-10)

(c)      “Allah hath created the heavens and the earth with truth, and that every soul may be repaid what it hath earned. And they will not be wronged”.

                                      (Quran XLV-22)

(d)      “Hath created death and life that He may try you which of you is best in conduct”.

                                       (Quran LXVII-2)

(e)      “And when thy Lord said unto the angels, Lo ! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth”.

                                      (Quran II-30)

(f)       “Allah, there is no God save Him. He gathered you all on the day of resurrection whereof there is no doubt. Who is more true in statement than Allah”.

                                      (Quran IV-87)

(g)      “And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and the earth swoon away, save his whom Allah willeth. Then it is blown a second time, and behold them standing waiting. And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the book is set up, and the Prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged. And each soul is paid in full for what it did. And He is better aware of what they do. And those who disbelieve are driven unto hell in troops till, when they reach it and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them. Came there not unto you messengers of your own, reciting unto you the revelations of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this your duty? They say: Yea, verily, but the word of doom for disbelievers is fulfilled. It is said (unto them) enter ye the gates of hell to dwell therein. Thus hapless is the journey’s end of the Scorners. And those who keep their duty to their Lord are driven unto the gardens in troops till, when they reach it, and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Peace be unto you! ye are good, so enter ye (the gardens of delight) to dwell therein. They say: Praise be to Allah who hath fulfilled His promise unto us and has made us to inherit the land, so journeying in the garden where we will so bounteous is the wage of workers. And thou seest the angels thronging round the throne, Hymning the praise of their Lord. And they are judged aright. And it is said. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds”.

                             (Quran XXXIX-68-75)

          Fortuitous Concourse of atoms negates divine process. But the Quran says:-

(a)      “What He pleaseth will God abrogate or confirm for with Him is the prototype of the book”.

                                      (Quran XIII-39)

(b)      “Lo! Allah it is He who spliteth the grain of corn and the date-stone (for spouting).He bringeth forth the living from the dead, and is the bringer-forth of the dead from the living. Such is Allah. How then are ye perverted? He  is the clever of the day-break, and He hath appointed the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. That is the measuring of the mighty, the wise. And He it is who hath set for you the stars that ye may guide your course by them amid the darkness of the land and the sea. We have detailed our revelations for a people who have knowledge, and He it is who hath  produced you from a single being, and (hath given you) a habitation and a repository. We have detailed our revelations for a people who have understanding. He it is who sendeth down water from the sky, and therewith we bring forth the green blade from which we bring forth the thick-clustered grains; and from the date-palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant branches; and (we bring forth) gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, alike and unlike. Look upon the fruit thereof, when they be a fruit, and upon its ripening. Lo! herein verily are portents or a people who believe”.

                                      (Quran VI-95-100)

(c)      “He it is who fashioneth  you in the wombs as pleaseth Him. There is no Lord save Him, the mighty, the Wise”.

                                      (Quran III-6)

(d)      “Verily we created man from product of wet earth, then placed him as a drop (of seed) in safe lodging; then fashioned we the drop a clot, then fashioned we the clot a little lump, then fashioned we the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the best of creators. Then Lo! after that ye surely die. Then Lo! on the day of resurrection ye are raised (again). And we have created above you seven paths, and we are never unmindful of creation”.

                                      (Quran XXIII-12-17)

(e)      “Hast thou not seen how Allah wafteth the clouds, then gathereth them, then maketh them layers, and thou seest the rain come forth from between them: He sendeth down from the heaven mountains wherein is hail, and smiteth therewith, whom He will, and averteth it from whom He will, the flashing of His lightening all but snatcheth away the sight”.

                                      (Quran XXIV-43)

(f)       “ And thy Lord inspired the bee, saying : Choose thou habitations in the hills and in the trees and in that which they hatch; then eat of all fruits, and follow the ways of thy Lord, made smooth (for thee).There cometh forth from their bellies a drink diverse of hues, wherein is healing for mankind. Lo !Herein is indeed a portent for people who reflect”.

                                      (Quran XVI-68-69)

          Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine purpose or any purpose of creation while the Quran has based the creation on a certain purpose. Read:-

          (a)      “And Allah hath created the heavens and the earth with truth and that every soul may be repaid what it hath earned.  And they will not be wronged”.

                                      (Quran XLV-22)

(b)      “Allah it is who raised up the heavens without visible supports, then mounted the throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to be of service, each runneth unto an appointed term: He ordereth the course, He detaileth the revelations, that haply ye may be certain of the meeting with your Lord”.

                                      (Quran XIII-2)

(c)      “And we created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in play, we created them not save with truth; but most of them know not. Assuredly the day of decision is the term of all of them. A day when friend can in naught avail friend, nor can they be helped, save him on whom Allah hath mercy. Lo! He is the mighty, the Merciful”.

                                      (Quran XLIV-38-42)

(d)      “And we created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve. And woe unto those who disbelieve, from the fire”.

                                      (Quran XXXVIII-27)

(e)      “Deemed ye then that we created you for naught, and that ye would not be returned unto us?”.

                                      (Quran XXIII-115)

(f)     “Hath created death and life that He may try you, which of you is best in conduct”.

                                      (Quran LXVIII-2)

(g)      “He it is who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth, and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by (the test of) that which He hath given you. Thy Lord is swift in prosecution, and Lo! He is forgiving, Merciful”.

                                      (Quran VI-165)

(h)     “I created the Jinn, and mankind only that they might worship Me.  I seek no livelihood from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me”.

                                      (Quran LI-56-57)

(i)     “Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His Sovereignty) for men of understanding. Such as remember Allah, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, (and say) : Our Lord! Thou created not this in vain. Glory be thee: Preserve us from the doom of fire”.

                                      (Quran-III-190-191)

(j)       “Every soul will taste of death. And ye will be paid on the day of resurrection only that which ye have fairly earned. Whoso is removed from the fire and is made to enter paradise, he indeed is triumphant. The life of this world is but comfort of illusion”.

                                      (Quran III-185)

          Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates indirectly the moral philosophy and moral laws; and it is very touchy point. And though the vulgar might find it difficult to comprehend, yet the subtle advocate of atomism, and the founder of atomism in this modern age, namely Bacon did clearly perceive this delicate point in the ancient atomism, and he did openly and clearly condemn the pursuit of moral philosophy as the repetition of Adam’s first transgression of God’s commands that forbade him the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and maintained that man had undertaken the pursuit of moral philosophy merely to give himself the law. (Read his Advancement of Learning). And the ancient Greek atomism no doubt has no room for moral philosophy and this is a point very important; for, the revealed religion is based on the very foundation of moral philosophy. Quran, like every other, scripture has its basis on moral philosophy.  According to the Quran the set of the laws that function in this physical universe emanate from the origin of moral philosophy.  It says:-

          “And the sky He hath uplifted; and He hath set the measure. That ye exceed not the measure, but observe the measure strictly, nor fall short thereof”.

                                      (Quran LV-7-9)

The Quran enjoins strict adherence to moral laws and man’s covenant with Allah. It says:-

          “Lo Allah enjoineth justice and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbiddeth lewdness and abomination, and wickedness. He exhorteth you in order that ye may take heed. Fulfil the Covenant of Allah when ye have covenanted, and break not your oaths after the preservation of them, and after ye have made Allah surety over you! Allah knoweth what ye do”.

                                      (Quran XVI-90-91)

          “Ye are the best folk that hath been raised up onto mankind. Ye enjoin the just, and ye forbid the evil, and ye believe in God”.

                                       (Quran 3 X 110)

(II)     Atoms according to early Greek atomic theory are indivisible, indestructible:-

          Now the modern discoveries of science have repudiated this assertion by providing the divisibility and destructibility of atoms. The Quran has explained this fact fourteen hundred years ago. It says:-

                   “Hotama” (Quran -CIV-4)

          Hotama is a kind of fire and literally means crusher, breaker etc. The description of this kind of fire given by the Quran shows that it breaks the nuclei of atoms.

          The notion of indestructibility of atoms implied eternity of this physical universe, which further implied a negation of the possibility of resurrection, judgement and life in heaven. While according to the Quran this present universe is transient only, and the fact of resurrection and the other life in heaven is a certainty.

          The Universe according to the Quran not eternal but transient. It says :-

          “Allah is He who raised up the heavens without visible supports, then mounted the throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to be of service, each runneth to an appointed term”.

                                      (Quran XIII-2)

          Life according to the Quran not eternal. It says:-

(a)      “And coin for them the similitude of the life of the world as water which we send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingleth with it and then becomes dry twigs that the winds scatter. Allah is able to do all things”.

                                      (Quran XVIII-45)

(b)      “Every one that is thereon will pass away: there remaineth but the countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory”.

                                      (Quran LV-26-27)

          The notion implied by ancient atomism that the life of this present world is the only life erroneous according to the Quran:-

          “And they say, There is naught save our life of the world, and we shall not be raised (again). If thou couldst see when they are set before their Lord! He will say: Is not this real? .They will say: Yea, verily by our Lord! He will say: Taste now the retribution for that ye used to disbelieve”.

                                      (Quran VI-29-30)

          Disintegration of this universe promised by the Quran. It says:-

          “The day when we shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll. As we began the first creation we shall repeat it. (It is) a promise (binding) upon us. Lo! We are to perform it”.

                                      (Quran XXI-104)

          Resurrection asserted by the Quran. It says:-

          “We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them save with truth, and Lo! the hour is surely coming”.

                                      (Quran XV-85)      Resurrection argued by the Quran. It says:-

          “Thinketh man that he is to be left aimless? Was he not a drop of fluid which gushed forth? Then he became a clot; then (Allah) shaped and fashioned and made of him a pair, the male and the female. Is not He (who doth so) able to bring the dead to life?”.

                                      (Quran LXXV-36-40)

          Resurrection examplified by the Quran. It says:-

          “And Allah it is who sendeth the winds and they raise cloud; then we lead it unto a dead land and revive therewith the earth after its death. Such is resurrection”.

                                      (Quran XXXV-9)

Q     Necessity of realising the fact of resurrection insisted upon by the Quran, It says:-

          “Say: Travel in the land and see how He originated creation, then Allah bringeth forth the later growth. Lo! Allah is able to do all things. He punisheth whom He will and showeth mercy unto whom He will, and unto Him ye will be turned”.

                                      (Quran XXIX- 20-21)

          The purpose of discovering the origin of life according to the Quran is to realise the certainty of the second life. Darwin famed for his pursuit of the origin of life and no such thought as the second life in the course of his researches.

          The universe unlike the early Greek atomists is regarded desirable by the Quran and is followed inevitably by resurrection and judgement, and life in heaven. The Quran says:-

          “When the sun is over-thrown, and when the stars fall, and when the hills are moved, and when the camel big with young are abandoned, and when the wild beasts are herded together, and when the seas rise, and when souls are re-united, and when the girl child that was buried alive is asked, for what  sin she was slain, and when the pages are laid open, and when the sky in torn away, and when hell is lighted, and when the garden is brought nigh, (then) , every soul will know what it hath made ready”.

                                      (Quran LXXXI-1-14)

And:-

          “When the trumpet shall sound one blast, and the earth with the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash, then on that day will the event be fall. And the heavens will split asunder, for that day it will be frail. And the angels will be on the sides thereof, and eight will uphold the throne of their Lord that day above them. On that day ye will be exposed, not a secret of you will be hidden. Then as for him who is given his record in his right hand, he will say: Take : Read my book: Surely I knew that I should have to meet my reckoning, then he will be in blissful state in a high garden whereof the clusters are in easy reach. (And it will be said unto those therein): eat and drink at ease for that which ye sent on before you in past days. But as for him who is given his record in his left hand, he will say: Oh, would that I had not been given my book and knew not what my reckoning! Oh, would that it had been death! My wealth hath not availed me, my power hath gone from me. (It will be said): Take him and fatter him. And then expose him to hell-fire. And then insert him in a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits. Lo! He used not to believe in Allah the tremendous, and urged not on the feeding of the wretched. Therefore hath he no lover here this day, nor any food save filth which none but sinners eat”.

                             (Quran LXIX- 13-37)

          These descriptions of hell and paradise have been given here that the two paradises, that is this one of modern Baconian type, and that one promised by Allah in the next world may be seen in comparison. So Also the two types of hell, that is this one of this Baconian atomic age and that one of the next world, after death on resurrection.

III.     The motion of the atoms according to the ancient atomism persists until checked presumably in collision with another atom, since the theory denies any other cause:-

          This idea of early atomism stands in radical opposition to that of Aristotle whose view was that some pushing hand was necessary to move the things. The problem appears more of a pre-disposed imagination than is based on any experimental data. Aristotle believed in God and divine government of the world, so he was naturally inclined to the idea of the presence of the divine hand in the function of the universe. But the early Greek atomists were in the mood of freeing this world from divine implications. The Quran evidently is on the side of Aristotle and the motion in the universe is essentially attributed to Allah. The modern science, however, has discovered the view of early atomists as a guide to the principle of inertia. Inertia, however is perceptible to a particular stage in the realm of physics, and thereafter the field may presumably be left to the divine power of the creator. Conventionality in such a matter is not objectionable, since ultimate reality is out of the pale of science. The Quran says:-

          “Hast thou not seen how Allah wafteth the clouds, then gathereth them, then maketh them layers”.

                                      (Quran XXIV-43)

          “O, mankind, Your Lord is He who driveth for you the ship upon the sea that ye may seek of His bounty. Lo! He was ever Merciful toward you”.

                                      (Quran XVII-66)

          “He covereth the night with the day, which is in haste to follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command. His verily is all creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds”.

                                      (Quran VII-54)

          “Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made night everlasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is a God besides Allah who could bring you light? Will ye not then heed? Say: Have ye thought if Allah made day ever-lasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is a God besides Allah who could bring you night wherein ye rest? Will ye not then see?’.

                                      (Quran XXVIII-71-72).   

          “And of His portents are the ships, like banners on the sea; if He will, He clameth the wind so that they keep still upon its surface. Lo! herein verily are signs for every steadfast grateful (heart)”.

                                      (Quran XLII-32-33)

          “O, Company of Jinn and men, if ye can overpass the bounds of the heavens and the earth, then overpass them. But by (our) leave only shall ye overpass them”.

                                      (Quran LV-33)

          “And of His signs is this. He sendeth herald winds to make you taste His mercy, and that ships may sail at His command and that ye may seek His favour, and that haply ye may be thankful”.

                                      (Quran XXX-46

          Now mark that all these things which Allah has claimed to do are things that are out of man’s power to do and Allah only can do. And see also, that there are two ways of saying a thing, namely : Either by resorting to the description of the natural process, or simply attributing the work to the will and power of God. And when God claims to command the sun, the moon and other natural phenomena. He speaks as the originator as well as the supervisor of the universe. Quran always speaks from the view point of God the Creator. This may be seen when Allah challenges the false Gods to create but a piece of straw. This perhaps does not refer to the preparation by some synthetic methods, but originally and without talking the material from Allah’s world.

  1. According to ancient atomic theory atoms and space are all that exist:-

          This is a denial of spiritual, while according to the Quran there are spiritual beings in the world. Mentioning the existence of angels and jinn and other unknown creations. The Quran says:-

          “It wanteth little but that the heavens be rent in sunder from above, the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord”.

                                      (Quran XLII-5)

          And (Angels) are deputed to take an account of man’s actions:-

          “And surely there are guardians over you. Honourable recorders. They know what ye do”.

                                      (Quran LXXXII-10-12)

          And they cause men to die:-

          “When death comes to one of you, Our messengers cause him to die, and they are not amiss”.

                                      (Quran VI-61)

          And they are rational beings; the Quran says:-

          “And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place my viceroy in the earth, they said, wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood”.

                                      (Quran II-30)

          “And the jinn did we create aforetime of essential fire”.

                                      (Quran XV-27)

          “And He createth that which ye knew not”.

                                      (Quran XVI-8)

          Although the atomists may claim the possibility of the atomic structure of these spiritual beings, yet this view of the early atomism appears as far too blunt and uncompromisably rude to atomitically explain the spiritual beings.

  1. The early atomic theory says the things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups: The combination of the notion of fortuitous concourse of atoms and the idea of their arrangement does not at all appear as a happy congruity, or a happy combination . It is surely a contradiction in terms.

                   The Quran, however, agrees with the idea of arrangement of atoms, though in a design pre-planned. It says:-

          “Lo! We have created everything by measure”.

                                      (Quran LIV-49)

          The intrinsic arrangement of invisible atoms appears even in the visible objects. The Quran says:-

          “And He it is who sendeth down water from the sky, and therewith we bring forth buds of every kind, we bring forth the green blade from which we bring forth the thick-clustered grain (growing in rows); and from the date-palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant branches; and (we bring forth) gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate alike and unlike”.

                                      (Quran VI-99)

  1. The early atomic theory says, “There are different kinds of atoms, distinguished by difference of shape, but individual atoms are too small to be noticed by senses”.

          The Quran says:-

          “And whatsoever He hath created for you in the earth of diverse hues, Lo! therein is indeed a portent for people who take heed”.

                                      (Quran XVI-13)

This diversity of hues may be observed in visible objects.  The Quran says:-

          “Hast thou not seen that Allah causeth water to fall from the sky, and we produce therewith fruit of different hues; and among the hills are streaks white and red of diverse hues, and (others) raven black; and of men and beasts and cattle; in like manner, diverse hues? The erudite among His bondsmen fear Allah alone, Lo! Allah is mighty, forgiving”.

                             (Quran XXXV-27-28)

          The spirit, however, is not comprehensible by man, the Quran says:-

          “They will ask thee concerning the spirit, say: The spirit is by command of my Lord, and of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little”.

                                      (Quran XVII-85)

          The early atomists gave out the individual atoms as too small to be noticed by the senses. The Quran gives out the creators as a being incomprehensible by vision. It says, “Vision comprehendeth him not, but He comprehendeth (all) vision, He is subtle, the aware”.

                                      (Quran VI-103)

And:-

          “Allah is the knower of the visible, and the invisible”.

                                      (Quran VI-73)

VII.    One passage only of the Quran treats the entire theory of early Greek atomism:-

          The early Greek atomic theory through its idea of the fortuitous concourse of atoms excluded the idea of a plan, design, divine government of the world, purpose, trial, resurrection, judgement, second life in heaven, and indeed the surveillance, vigilance, even interest of the Creator.

          The idea of the persistence of atoms in motion until checked in a collision with another atom insidiously implies the absence of any control of divine power. The idea that of the non–existence of anything other than the atoms and space implies the non-existence of spiritual beings. The view that the things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups is yet another hints of the denial of divine influence in the creation. In short the entire theory so founded on anti-religion and atheistic foundation, and breathes an air of dark atheism. This is a theory purposely set against the established doctrines of revealed faith and formulated with cold blooded deliberateness. Yet it presents a unique example of unparalleled success as a deceptive theory in the entire history of philosophy. Its force has been in its scientific basis. Its popularity has its origin in the sweetness of physical comfort. But let us see the wonder of a scripture, that is the Quran, the champion of the Scriptures in this Baconian age, how it has gathered the complete refutation of the entire theory of ancient atomism in but one passage, Read  and judge yourself. It says:-

          “Allah is He who created the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them in six days. Then He mounted His throne. Ye have not, beside him a protecting friend or meditator. Will ye not then remember? He directeth the ordinance from the heavens unto the earth; then it assendeth unto the earth; then it assendeth unto him in a day, whereof the measure is a thousand years of that ye reckon. Such is the knower of the invisible and the visible, the mighty, the merciful. Who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay; then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid, then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit, and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye! And they say! When we are lost in the earth, how can we then be recreated? Nay but they are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord. Say: The angel of death who has charge concerning you, will gather you, and afterward unto your Lord ye will be returned. Couldst thou but see when the guilty hang their heads before their Lord, (and say) .Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, send us back: We will do right, now we are sure. And if we had so willed; we could have given every soul its guidance, but the word from Me concerning evil-doers took effect: that I fill hell with the Jinn and mankind together. So taste (the evil of your deeds). For-as- much-as ye forget the meeting of this your day; Lo! We forget you. Taste the doom of immortality because of what ye used to do”.

                             (Quran XXXII-4-14)

 

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