Complete Books of Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel

 

Gabriel's extinguishing the atomic hell series.

Volume V

QURAN VERSUS THE UNSCIENTIFIC PHILOSOPHY OF THE SCIENTIST

 

            By the infinite grace and boundless mercy of Allah, this series of volumes is my original work. The application of scientific facts, and the new discoveries from the Quran are all my own and quite unknown to anyone, anywhere, Muslims or non-Muslims. And for that, the most benign and merciful Allah be praised, for ever, eternally. And thus is all the responsibility mine. And again Allah be praised, and it is my conviction that it will save the mankind from atomic doom.

 

 

Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel

Adara Afqare Gabriel, Quaid e Azam Street Nawababad Wah Cantt

Distt Rawalpindi Pakistan

www.oqasa.org

yousuf_gabriel21@yahoo.com

 

Gabriel's extinguishing the atomic hell series.

Volume (V)

QURAN VERSUS THE UNSCIENTIFIC PHILOSOPHY OF THE SCIENTIST

CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter-I

History of Atomism

Chapter-II

Doctrinal implications of ancient Greek atomism

Chapter-III

The views of the Quran versus the views of early Greek Atomic Theory

Chapter-IV

The missing link between the ancient and modern followers of atomism

Chapter-V

The Twelve pages of the "Mysterious Universe" examined.

Chapter-VI

Quran versus the unscientific philosophy of the scientist

Chapter-VII

The Simile of the Quran versus the Plato's simile of the cave

CONTENTS

(detail)

Introduction

Chapter-1

History of Atomism

Chapter-II

Doctrinal implications of ancient Greek  atomism                         

Chapter-III        

The views of the Quran versus the views of early Greek Atomic Theory

Chapter-IV        

The missing link between the ancient and modern followers of atomism 

Chapter-V

The twelve pages of “The Mysterious Universe” examined. Section (i) The twelve pages of "The Mysterious Universe". Section-(ii) The endeavour of the philosopher in the twelve pages an echo of the ancient Greek atomism. Section (iii) The twelve pages reviewed in the light of doctrinal implications of ancient atom-ism. Section (iv) Doctrinal implications of the theory of ancient Greek atomism.

Chapter-VI     

Quran versus the philosophy of "The Mysterious Universe". Section (i) Introduction to the Quran versus "The Mysterious Universe".

Part (one)

Part (two)

Section (ii) The dialogue between the Quran and the philosopher of the twelve page. Section (ii) (a) “A few stars..............Universe” (M.U.) (page 1). The incomparably large size of the stars in comparison with the inseparably small size of the earth, the innumerably large number of the stars. And the resultant insignificance of our earth. The relative views of the Quran on the topic.

Section (ii) (b) “This vast...............distance”. (M.U) (page 1)

The unimagined a spaciousness and vacuity of space. Each star to voyage as if an empty ocean. The relative views of the Quran on the topic.

Section (ii) (c) “We believe...........is one: (M.U.) Page (1-2). The presumed hypothesis of the separation of earth from the sun. The relative views of the Quran in this context.

Section (ii) (d) "The sun..............enshrined". (M.U.) (Page 2)

The unsuitability of the heavenly bodies as the abode of life. The appearance of life on earth. The ignorance of the scientist as to how, why or when thereof. The appearance of life on earth and its subsequent development to its present stage. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (e) “Although .......to life”. (M.U) (page 2-3) This universe terrifying to the unscientific philosopher. The relative viewed of the Quran.

Section (ii) (f) “Into such.........space” (M.U.) (page 304). The probability of life being as accidental and the product of blind play of chance. The example of blindly strumming monkeys on typewriters happening to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. The relative views of the Quran on the topic.

Section (ii) (g)” This rarity..................state”. (M.U.) (Page 4) The rarity of planetary systems, and the resultant diminutive character of life. The necessity of a particular range of temperature for the appearance of life. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (h) “The stars...... boil”. (M.U) (page 4) General unsuitability of the thermal conditions for the appearance of life in space, which is either too cold or too hot to allow the appearance fl life. The relative views of the Quran regarding the topic.

Section (ii) (i) “Life can.................possible” (M.U.) (page 4-5) The number of and the areas of the zones in space in which life is thermally possible far too small. Their existence too scanty and space. So also the scarcity of the planets existing within these zones. Thus the material insignificance of life in the universe. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (j) “Just for.......line”.(M.U.) (page 5) The apparent lack of material proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism that is the universe, and the resulting output that is life and argument to deny the probability of the universe on having primarily designed to produce life like our own. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (k) “We do not..................biology”. (M.U. (Page 5-6) whether suitable physical conditions only enough for the appearance of life or not known. The material constituents of a living body ordinary chemical atoms. All these existed on the new born earth.  The probability of the atoms to have arranged themselves in the way they are found arranged in a living cell. Whether a skilful chemist could create life out of necessary atoms or not, not known. The answer to this question liable to produce greater revolution of thought than that produced by Galilee's astronomy or Darwin’s biology. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (l) “We do however.......molecules” (M.U.(Page 6-7) The particular capacity of the atoms of the living body for coagulating into extraordinarily large molecules. Yet mot atoms devoid of such a capacity. The role of carbon atom in producing life. Not the vital force as previously thought, but the ordinary element carbon to distinguish the matter of living bodies. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (m) “If this is no....it”. (M.U) (page 7).

The existence of life due to particular capacity of the carbon atom, namely its power to bind other atoms together. The reason of this particular property of carbon not yet fathomed by the mathematical physics. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (n) “Other similar.......why”. (M.U) page 7-8) Other similar cases of peculiar properties of certain atoms containing a definite number of electrons known to Chemistry. The example of magnetism, and radio-activity. The reason of this peculiarity not yet unravelled by the mathematical physic. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (o) “Thus chemistry.......governed”. (M.U.) (Page 8) The extent of the knowledge of Chemistry respecting this peculiarity of atoms limited to the existence of a certain definite number of electrons in atoms. Chemistry at present can only ell to place life in the same category as magnetism, and radio-activity. The universe built to operate according to certain laws. The numbers of electrons of the atoms and the consecutive properties thereof appearing in various phenomena, such as life, magnetism, and radio-activity. The Omnipotent Creator subject to no limitation whatsoever. The probabilities of atoms which certain other number of electrons to show certain other priorities is another type of a universe. Chemistry to suggest a probability that of life being an accidental consequence of the special set of laws that govern the present universe. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (p)”Again .Universe”. (M.U) (page 8-9) The word accidental, it is feared, may be challenged. The present set of laws might have been elected with a predetermined view of creating life. The suggestion of a dismissal of the anthropomorphic attributes respecting the Creator of universe in order to expel any notion of a special interest in life on the part of the Creator of this grand universe. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (q) “A trivial.............universe”. (P.U. page 9-10) The analogy between knots in maritime operations and the material activity of life in comparison to the total material activity of the universe. Both insignificant alike. Hence life to claim no special interest of the Creator. Magnetism or radio-activity on the other handstand in a better position to claim the special interest of the Creator, due to far greater material activity of physics than biology in the universe. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) ® “So much for.....race". (M.U)) (Page 10) The bewilderment caused to the unscientific philosopher by the thought of origin of life and the purpose of means existence or the destiny while fate had in store for human race. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (s) : “Life of .......upset”. (M.U. (page 10) The balance of the suitable conditions of life, its possible derangement an easy matter. The derangement thereof to cause the disappearance of life. The relative views of he Quran.

Section (ii) (t): “Primitive............life”. (M.U) page 10) The terror caused to the primitive man by the fast descending ice-age on earth.  The universe to seem hostile to life to the inhabitants of the present age as well. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (u) “We of ......end”. (M.U) (page 10-11) The threat of approaching cold and the subsequent heat-death pass anticipated by the present generation of humanity. The example of Tantalus. The sun losing heat. The earth moving farther and farther away from the sun into the outer cold and darkness of space. The life to be ultimately frozen if not previously destroyed by some celestial collision or cataclysm. All suns in the universe to die like ours. Life on earth or wherever else it did exist in the universe would vanish to meet the same inglorious end. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (v)  "Physics .............death”. (P.U.) (Page 11) The prediction of the second law of thermodynamics about the end of life in the universe. A heat death. All roads to lead to Rome, that is universal death. The relative view s of the Quran.

Section (ii) (w) “Is this, then..........been”. (M.U) (page 11-12) Humanity’s mistake of stumbling into a universe not designed for life, and indifferent, even hostile to life to cling onto a microscopic grain of sand, that is our earth, and to strut our tiny hour that is the span of life in the universe, on our tiny stage, that is the earth, with acknowledge of final frustration of our aspirations, and the destruction of our achievements along with the disappearance of life from the earth. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (x) “Astronomy suggests .............Science” (M.U) (page 12) The question about life's end and an earth to be answered by physics and not astronomy. Relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (y) The Philosopher recants his former views before the Quran. The relative views of the Quran.

Section (ii) (z)

Philosopher’ former views and his altered views. His revelations, confessions complaints, delusions and his conclusions. Relative views of the Quran.     

Chapter-VII    

The simile of the Quran versus the Plato’s simile of the cave.

Introduction

The pioneers of modern atomism had intended to adopt atomism with a determination to segregate its atheistic side and to adopt the purely scientific side of the theory and this they thought as possible. But time has exposed their error. The atheistic part of atomism has certainly kept its pace insidiously along with its scientific aspect. We have seen how exclusively materialistic has been Bacon’s philosophy of modern atomism, and how candidly did he throw the moral philosophy into the shade as superfluous, unwanted, even forbidden. The result of all the cleverness of Bacon in moulding his worldly philosophy has justly, rightly, logically and scientifically appeared as a burning, blazing, roaring, and braying atomic hell for the entire mankind, nay even all life on earth.

            In this volume we will subject the science, (this modern science) to a scrutiny. We will see how far its votaries have adhered to the philosophic link with the peculiarly antithesis theory of ancient Greek atomism .And we are afraid to maintain that the loyal, philosophic minded votaries of this modern science have continued in the intrinsically implicit and explicit trends of ancient atomism and have not renounced the least traces of the peculiarly atheistic doctrinal tendencies of the 500 B.C. philosophy. And we will also see in the light of the discoveries of modern science, how far it has succeeded in giving answers to religious problems and the other questions which have haunted the human mind since times immemorial, and on which indeed depended the future of man both in this world and the other world. Science, however, has presented a dismal picture. It has indeed captured some of the martial forces of nature to provide some physical comforts to man-----though it is ultimately stuck up in atomic force-----but as far as the question of ultimate reality is concerned, it is nowhere near to it. But above all else we will bring the Quran into play all the while, and will subject the views of science and the philosophical scientist to its scrutiny and will know its own view regarding the views presented.

            One of our object in this work as we have said is to find a link between the doctrines of the ancient Greek atomism, and the modern philosophic scientist. For this purpose we have selected a twelve page chapter by the name of “The Dying Sun” contained in "The Mysterious Universe" of Sir James Jeans. It is an amazingly master product of a giant intellect, and is superb analysis of a complicated topic by a very keen, very sublime and a very systematic mind appearing in a compact anarchy and is a remarkable specimen of penmanship. What greater honour is to be cherished by a man than that a piece of his literary work be selected as an exhibit for the scrutiny of no less a divine scripture than the Quran itself. But the piece did deserve such a unique honour. Sir Jeans has in his book exposed the true picture of science as at present it appears, and has assessed its limits and limitations in providing answers to man’s philosophical questions. The picture no doubt is dismal yet it is for a scientist of the calibre of Sir Jeans himself to undertake such a study and then to do justice to it. "The Mysterious Universe" of Sir James jeans was published in 1930. But it is a matter of regret that no James jeans arose after 1945, that is the year in which science appeared with its real, frightful countenance, in Hiroshima.

            These twelve pages of "The Mysterious Universe" contain a compact world of knowledge as will be seen in this work. But more wonderful it is, that the Quran should meet the science and the philosophy contained therein, point by point, from the beginning to the end condemning and attesting  the facts in the manner of a dialogue, and in a way as if the Quran anticipated the thought, even language of Sir Jeans. This again appears as a miracle of the Quran, and as a means of depicting the difference between the divine and human intelligence.

            Sir James Jeans has in these twelve pages tried to show how far the modern science as seen in the light of its discoveries could answer the general problems of philosophy and doctrines of religion, such as, the creation, its purpose, man’s purpose in it, its end, and thereafter. The brief foreword of Sir James Jeans to his "Mysterious Universe" will make the point clearer. He wrote:-

            “There is a widespread conviction that the new teachings of astronomy and physical science are destined to produce an immense change on our outlook on the universe as a whole, and on our views as to the significance, of human life. The question at issue is ultimately one for philosophic discussion, but before the philosophers have a right to speak, science ought first to be asked to tell all she can as to ascertained facts and provisional hypotheses. Then and then only, may discussion legitimately pass into the realms of philosophy".     

And:

            With some such thoughts as these in my mind, I wrote the present book, obsessed by frequent doubts as to whether it could justify an addition to the great amount which has already been written on the subject I can claim no special qualifications beyond the proverbially advantageous position of the mere onlooker; I am not philosopher either by training or inclination, and for many years my scientific work has lain outside the arena of contending physical theories.

And:

            "The first four chapters, which form the main part of the book, contain brief discussions, on very broad lines; of such scientific questions as seem to be of interest, and to provide useful material, for the discussion of the ultimate philosophical problem. As far as possible I have avoided over-lapping my former book “The universe around us” because I hope the present book, may be read a sequel to that. But an exception has been made in favour of material which is essential to the main argument, so as to make the present book complete in itself".

And:-

            "The last chapter stands on a different level: Every one may claim the right to draw his own conclusions from the facts presented by modern science. The chapter merely contains the interpretations which I, a stranger in the realms of philosophical thought, feel inclined to place on the scientific facts and hypotheses discussed in the main part of the book. Many will disagree with it. It was written to that end".

(Foreword to Mysterious Universe-Dorking 1930- J. H. Jeans)

            These philosophical views which we have observed in these twelve pages as reminiscent of the doctrinal implications of ancient Greek atheistic atomism are not the views of a limited coterie of scientists, or a sect of distempered philosophers, but rather are the practical views of the entire mankind of today, even of those who never have heard them in their life, Nay even of those who would most vehemently disavow them, for, these are the views that are inherent in the spirit of the prevalent philosophy of Baconian atomism. In time, however, if this age continues, people will own these views openly as their belief. The atomic cataclysm may, however, intervene, and cut the gordian knot.

            Sir James Jeans has in writing a book like “The Mysterious Universe” rendered a great, rather invaluable service to this modern deluded world. He has by exposing the real situation of this modern science unveiled a picture which none but a man of the calibre of Sir James Jeans himself could have been able to do. He certainly has thrown this modern science from the status of a wonder-working Goddess down to a humble hand-maid, of course with her atomic trident held by her. He has exposed her philosophical  limitations, and scientific incapabilties with ability and with courage, enough to pen the hypnotised eye of mankind to the true reality in a stark naked situation. Sir James jeans has sadly complained of the possibility of certain passages of his original work having been liable to misunderstanding, misinterpretation, even misquotation in various unexpected ways. I am quite unaware from which direction did the criticism issue, though I am not unaware of the endless and extreme subtleties of the subject of philosophy. On my own part I have tried to make myself believe that the philosophical points discussed in the 12 pages were not essentially the conviction of Sir James Jeans or any other particular individual, rather the philosopher has treated the generalities as personified. Even if Sir James Jeans had written utterly against religion, what a unique honour it had been for a writer to happen to be the author of a human production deemed fit to serve as an exhibit to the scrutiny of a scripture.

            And in the end let it be known, and let there be no misunderstanding, that the entire world today, from one end to the other, most evidently is the follower of the Baconian philosophy of modern atomism in the practical sense of the word, by virtue of this science as it is, and by virtue of this progress as it is, and the end is universal ruin in the atomic hell. And please allow me to repeat in order to save his honour, that the thought and conclusions found in the twelve pages of " The Mysterious Universe", that are the subject of discussion in this our book, are not at all those of Sir James jeans himself, but rather he has shown the probable trends of the modern science and its capacity in the field of philosophy. Some of these conclusions he has explicitly negated in the last chapter of his book and we have mentioned in this our work. The person, the mind and the  intellect of Sir James Jeans is such that is worthy of boundless esteem and hearty respect. His book is marvel of clarification.

 

 

                                                            GABRIEL

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER-1

HISTORY OF ATOMISM

PART (ONE)

PHILOSOPHICAL HISTORY OF ATOMISM

            In order to understand this modern age, and all that is of this modern age, the knowledge, the science, the civilisation, the culture, the progress, the thought and all the moral, social, economic, religious, aesthetic, philosophical and psychological features, opinions, beliefs, attitudes and notions, its unique, universal, systematic and ever-progressive economic and industrial set up, and lastly and alas, in order to understand the extreme appropriateness of its tragic end in atomic bombs and nuclear radiations, it is essential to know and understand the theory, the philosophy and the history of atomism, since this modern age has grown on the basis of atomism, and all its basic ideas are derived from this very same theory, and all its distinctive features are the effects of the atomistic theory and philosophy. He only is best able to judge of the true reality of this modern age who has studied atomism in comparison to the philosophy of faith. It may appear strange but is a fact that could most easily be proved by a careful study of the Quran from this particular point of view. The Quran discusses and opposes the atomism in a manner as if atomism were to appear in future as a prospective and prominent adversary of faith and hence of the Quran itself, and a universal threat to mankind. The Quran discusses, describes, traces and confronts it to its ultimate end in the atomic hell and sounds a warning accordingly pointing out the causes of the emergence of the atomic bomb, a creation of atomism itself. It is not only in its particular prophecy that the Quran has treated the subject of atomism, nay, but the topic is dispersed throughout the Quran. The prophecy, however, is the essence of the whole subject just as the atomic bomb is fruit of the whole theme of atomism. In the light of the treatment of the subject of atomism by the Quran it appears as if the Quran had the entire course of future atomism in view and as if the Quran described the complete affair in a commentary like a keen, omniscient observer. Any one who has perceived this view, shall find no difficulty in the endorsement thereof and cursory glance at the writings of the Quran will reveal to him the truth in the clearest of colours, provided indeed that one possessed the real knowledge of atomism. The Quran after having condemned the worldly doctrines of atomism throughout has ultimately shown it to culminate in its logical end scientific end in the atomic bomb, though by pointing out the causes of the emergence of the atomic bomb it has shown a possibility of averting the dreadful doom. A study of the Quran from this particular point of view, that is in reference to atomism and consequently to this age of atomism is essential to a degree that could hardly be overstressed, for, it opens up an avenue of knowledge which is most needed in order to give the necessary directive to the movement of reform with the object of averting the all-consuming threat of atomic hell. A study of this kind will make manifest too the explicit and implicit potentialities of the Quran and the role of miraculous guidance which this scripture can ply in clearing the misunderstandings of this materialistic age and leading it out of all the most impending hazards ------that are the product of the erroneous philosophy of atomism onto the path of real peace, real prosperity and real progress as against the delusive peace, delusive prosperity, and delusive progress of atomism that tends toward the delusive utopia of a delusive bliss. The plausibility of the acceptance of the word of Quran by this age lay in the fact that while nothing but the verdict of science would be acceptable to this age of science, the Quran would fulfil this very condition and offer its argument on the basis of science itself. If scientific merit alone could find grace in the eyes of this age, the Quran will certainly prove its worth in this field----but let only someone worthy of such an enterprise venture on so hazardous a work-----and if no appeals in the name of divinity and faith could be of any avail and only the scientific verities were acceptable to the mind of this age, the Quran would come out with the scientific verities in order to bring conviction. The Quran has been acclaimed as a standing miracle and it certainly will work miracles in an age which does not believe in miracles.

            The theory of atomism lay buried deep in the strata of history like an antiquated fossil, almost forgotten and far removed from any probability of a revival ever in this world  (7th century. A.D). when the Quran ventured at the prophecy about the atomic bomb, the ultimate fruit of atomism that was to appear twelve hundred years later in history. Atomic bomb, it is evident could never have appeared in the world without the revival of atomism (17th Century, A.D.), while the revival of atomism itself is one of the strangest events of history. The theory of atomism was revived as from a grave that was almost forgotten to the world, and then no sooner it was revived than it spread with a flurry that could only be likened to a wild fire in a petrol dump, and soon came to pervade the entire field of science and indeed every sphere of human life.  The prophecy of the Quran is:-

 

“Woe to every back-biter, defamer, who amasseth wealth of (this world) and storeth it (against the future). He thinketh  surely that his wealth will render him immortal. Nay, for, verily he shall be flung into Al-Hotama and what could teach thee what Al-Hotama is? It is Allah’s kindled fire, which leapeth up over the hearts. It is (a fire) closed in on them in outstretched columns”.

                                    (The Quran-104-Al-Homaza)

            It is to Democritus of Abdera in Thrace, (Greece), 4th century B.C. a younger contemporary of Socrates, and nicknamed as “the laughing philosopher----because he found in life matter only for laughter, as opposed to Heraclitus (about 500 B.C), whom the latter tradition called the weeping philosopher, because he always found in human life matter for tears----that the theory of atomism is generally attributed, though in fact not he but Lucippus was the real originator thereof. Little is known about Lucippus, except that he was a Milesian, and that he flourished about 440 B.C. Democritus received the credit, because he was responsible for developing the system and making it known, Both Lucippus and Democritus were atheists, and the association of atheism with their name was not only responsible for the unpopularity of theory in their own time and later, but another fact which has not been clearly observed is that their theory was of the same dye with their atheism and that it was hardly possible to segregate the scientific part of the theory from the atheistic origin from which it had sprung. This fact has been proved by time.

            The pioneers of atomism in modern age had adopted atomism on the understanding that the scientific part of the theory could be separated from the atheistic implications and used in structural interpretation of the universe for the material progress of mankind. It was with this very view in mind that they had ventured to adopt this theory. But unfortunately their view eventually has proved as a mere delusion and the atheistic implications of the theory have one and all crept into the field and have occupied the human mind to the extent that today it is hard to induce a philosopher to study the influence of atomic theory on the faith of mankind, inspite of the fact that the theme is far more interesting and absorbing and indeed more essential than the evolution of Darwin which treats of the origin of mankind, while it is not the origin but the end in the shadow of the atomic bomb that is more worthy of man’s attention at present .If ever such a research is conducted, the results thereof would well be ceremoniously recited over the graves of those pioneers of atomism who were mistaken in their thinking that the atheistic element could be segregated from the scientific part of the theory. In fact the process was far more difficult than that of separating Uranium 235 from Uranium 238. Atomism was exclusively a theory of the world, and nothing but world and its wealth today occupies the mind of mankind. Following are the views of the early atomists :-

(1)        The atoms are indivisible and indestructible.

(2)        They move about in all directions in a fortuitous concourse in an otherwise empty space.

(3)        Atoms and space are all that exist.

(4)        There are different kinds of atoms, distinguished by differences of shape, but individual atoms are too small to be noticed by the senses.

(5)        The things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups. Change consists in nothing but their arrangement. There is no alteration in the atoms themselves.

(6)        The motion of the atom persists until checked presumably in collision with another atom since the theory denies any other cause.

Although both Democritus and Plato lived in the same world, yet the worlds of their minds were quite different from one another. Like Plato, Democritus held the eternal and ultimate reality in the world to be the object not of senses but of the understanding. But he considered the nature of this reality very differently from Plato. It consisted of atoms, that is of indivisible (and therefore indestructible) bodies of a size too small to be detected by our senses, differing from one another in shape (whence he could call them by the same name as Plato gave to his ultimate realities of ideas or forms) moving about in a vacuum or void.

            The great contemporary thinkers were apprehensive of the dangers with which atomism was fraught and therefore opposed its prevalence. The overbearing influence of Aristotle was cast into the scale against the adoption of such a theory as atomism was. Not the influence of Aristotle alone but also the greatest writing philosopher of ancient times, namely, Plato, was most vehement in his opposition to atomism. The two hundred years which followed the death of Aristotle, despite the fact that they were the great years of progress in mathematical and astronomical science, and made illustrious by such names as those of  Euclid, whose "Elements" was the text book of Geometry for two thousand years, of Erastothenes, who first used the method by which the size of the earth is ascertained, of Archimedes, the discoverer of the principle of lever, of Hipparchus, who has been called he true father of astronomy, yet none of these great thinkers so much as condescended to take the name of atomism, not to speak of any research or investigation. The opposition of atomism is not restricted to the ancient thinkers alone. Bacon, the greatest, the ablest and the most eloquent advocate of atomism, in spite of his disagreement with Aristotle on many points stood in perfect agreement with him in condemning the blindness of atomism to the evidence of design in the world, afforded by the existence of the structures too elaborate ever to be explained satisfactorily by a fortuitous concourse of atoms. Bacon seemed to be keenly sensible of the danger which lay in attempts to start our investigations from a consideration of the purpose of nature of which we are about too likely to take a very short-sighted a view. In the presence of the disastrous situation of the world that has been brought about by the theory of atomism in these present times, and the atomic bomb, we too, the unfortunate denizens of this present age of atomism are likely to appreciate the apprehensions of the ancient antagonistic thinkers, as well as the fears of Bacon, the great modern protagonist of atomism regarding atomism, and mourn the tendency of the pioneers who ventured to adopt so dangerous a theory as atomism for material uplift, and of their followers who took the shortsighted view of the purpose of nature, exactly as Bacon had feared, and fatal to the immediate material gains with the result that the world ultimately has reached a stage where perfect misery and utter destruction billow forth from the horizons towards the mankind that stares in terror at the approaching catastrophe, in utter helplessness.

            Amidst the general unpopularity of the atomism in ancient Greece, there was, however a philosophical school, which adopted atomism as a fundamental part of their system. Its attraction for this school was not its scientific utility, so much, as its apparent inconsistency with the doctrine of the divine Government of the world, which they regarded as the source of the worst evil that affected mankind, namely, the fear of death and of what may come after it. This school which adopted atomism as a remedy against the terrors of religion was the Epicurean school of thought. Epicurus, the founder of Epicurean school, and the chief rival of Zeno, the founder of the school of Stoicism, however, recommended the rational pursuit of pleasure. But his ideal was not followed, and the excess became the order of his followers. Although Epicurus did not preach that one should make the most of his life, eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die, and recommended refined pleasures, and moderation, yet the sensualists found a good chance in his teachings to claim for their lives the sanctions of the Epicurean principle, that "pleasure” is the chief good at which alone it is reasonable to aim, and thus the name of the Epicurean very early become a synonym for a sensualist, and a reproach. We mark that the ancient Epicureans who adopted the atheistic side of atomism and neglected its scientific side, failed. And we also mark that the modernists who had adopted the scientific side of atomism have failed too. The former due to the abuse of pleasure, and the latter due to the short-sighted view of the purpose of nature, and immediate material gain. Atomism thus in every form has brought failure and destruction.

            The Epicurean school was confronted from its cradle by the Stoic, a school of thought opposed to the theory of Epicureanism. Virtue against the pleasure of Epicureanism was the motto of the stoic, and a strict moral and religious code was to be adhered to as against the loose and lax life of the Epicurean. Although these two schools divided the allegiance of a majority of thoughtful men in the countries which at the beginning of the Christian era formed the heart of the Roman Empire, the Epicurean gradually lost the ground and the stoic prevailed. It will be remembered that the philosophers whom the Apostle Paul is related (Act XVII-18) to have encountered on his visit to Athens were representatives of Epicurean and Stoics. When they heard of the Resurrection of the dead from Apostle Paul, some mocked: and  others said; We will hear thee again of this matter. So Paul departed from among them. However certain men calve unto him, and believed; among them were Dionysius the Areopagite and a woman named Damaris. This visit of St. Paul, however, did not augur well for the cult of Epicureanism, and along with Epicureanism, for the atomism itself, for, with the advent of Christianity in those parts was ushered in an era which proved fatal  to both the Epicureanism and the atomism.

            It was not surprising that of all the Greek Schools, the Stoic was the one, which made itself at home among the Romans, who, in less than two centuries after the death of Zeno, the founder of that School had become the masters of the Greek speaking world. Love of knowledge and delight in beauty, the indulgence in subtle doubts and the cultivation of refined pleasures were all alike uncongenial to the Roman temper. This was inclined to charge their representatives among Greek professors of philosophy with a frivolity dangerous to the sense of discipline and public duty, which had been hitherto the ministry of the Roman state. But such suspicions were less aroused by the stoics than by any of their rivals. If the moral and religious temper of Stoicism thus won it a special welcome at Rome, there was also something in the temper of Roman people which was particularly congenial to the stoic philosophy. This was what has been called "The sense of Justice and Law", which marked out the Roman people among the contemporary nations and which made the Roman legal system the basis on which the Roman Empire stood for centuries with remarkable stability. That the stoics rather than either the Epicureans or the sceptics exercised in the log run the widest influence in an age which was seeking for a religious faith is to be explained by their attitude of devout acquiescence in the predestined or providential order of the Universe.

            Epicurus, the fonder of Epicueanism, adopted atomism, not for its scientific merit, but because its materialism supported his denial of a spiritual life after death. Roman poet Lucretius was an eminent follower of Democritus. He did much by his poem "De Rerum Natura", to make atomism known. Yet, although the founder seemed to the poet a worthy deliverer of man from the superstitious terrors: to a consistent Epicurean, the intellectual and scientific activity, except so far as it served to dissipate the superstitious dread, it could hardly be more than a refined pastime. It is not thus surprising to find, that the Epicureans contributed little to the advancement of scientific or philosophical inquiry. They adopted as their own the atomic theory of Democritus, but in their hands it was neither enabled to meet the objections which may be aided against it as theory of ultimate nature of reality, nor made to exhibit its great capacities as instrument of scientific description and discovery.

            Both the Stoicism and Christianity were at one against the Epicureanism in their exacting standards of conduct; and in their faith in the divine government of the world. Moreover the Epicureans saw in the course of nature an eternal play of atoms, without any predestined plot, the Stoics and Christians alike looked forward to a configuration in which the present frame of things would perish.

            By the 5th Century. A.D, the Period of struggle among numerous competitors ended in complete victory of Christianity. Every candle except that of Christianity was by then extinguished. The whole of the Roman Empire along with the Emperor had embraced the faith of Christianity, and it became the state religion.  500 to 1000 B.C is a period known as dark ages of Europe. The original contribution of Western thought was essentially complete by about 100 .B.C. The decline of philosophy and art began long before this with the eclipse of Athens. The advent of Christianity meant an end to knowledge, Epicurianism, and atomism. The so-called dark ages of the West are known as dark ages because during the period in question intellectual activity for the acquirement of knowledge was missing throughout. It is strange to observe that the Quran should make the prophecy about the atomic bomb, the fruit of an atomism in the 7th century A.D. that is at the zenith of the dark ages of the West and at a time when not even a vestige of the theory of atomism was extant in the world. Indeed at the time like that an opinion about the probability of the revival of atomism in the world would have been attributed to lunacy, nay even an allusion to atomism, might have been incomprehensible to most. It was in 4th century B.C, that Aristotle had thrown the weight of his authority against the atomic theory in a general atmosphere of the world which was quite uncongenial to so worldly and atheistic a philosophy as atomism was, and when Galen, the celebrated physician of the 2nd century A.D. added his veto to that of Aristotle, atoms suffered an eclipse that was to last for about fourteen centuries. The end of atomism was brought about by the constant opposition of Stoicism first and then by both the Stoicism and Christianity in a manner that not so much as the name of atomism was left in the world long before the 7th century when the Quran ventured its prophecy about Al-Hotama and enumerated as the causes of the appearance of Al-Hotama the very same features that were exactly characteristic of the philosophy of atomism.

            The Eclipse of atoms, however, cleared at last about the 16th century A.D.  The philosophies of Aristotle and Plato, which had held the throne for centuries, had employed the faculties of ablest men in many successive ages, had worn many shapes, had mingled themselves with many creeds, had survived revolutions in which empires, religions, languages, races, had perished, were fated at last to fall before the new philosophy of fruit and utility as contemptibility barren and fruitless exercise of human mind. The same fate was met by the faith of Christianity. A faith which had for more than fifty generations occupied the mind and the soul of millions of its adherents, and had controlled their life-spans from their birth to their death and even thereafter, could not stand the irresistible urge of its followers for the feast which nature had spread before them. The doctrinal inconsistencies that had of late crept into the Christian religion and the excesses of the representatives of the hierarchies inspired in them the unquenchable hatred of faith. The precedent of the sumptuous feasts enjoyed by the ministers of the church of God further stimulated their desire of wealth and power, and thus the long-lost and forgotten theory of atomism had its day to the consequent distraction of both the church and its followers, not in one country, not in two, a three or four, but rather in every community, in every country and every part of the world.

            The knowledge of atomic theory after its long disappearance was eventually derived from a relic of the poem, "De Rerum Natura", which Lucritius had composed in Ist Century B.C. and in which the earliest views of atomists were logically marshalled and brilliantly exposed. It was in the light of the information derived from a relevant piece of this poem that Pierre Gassandi (1592-1655), the provencal philosopher and Roman Catholic Priest, introduced the views of the Greek atomists. Gradually atomism was revived and it spread and soon gained the whole field of human activity, manual, mental, social, scientific, economic, domestic, communal national and international. After Perrie Gassandi, Francis Bacon rose as a most brilliant and most persuasive advocate of Atomism.

            Bacon’s design was, by means of inquiries some of which should be experimental like those of the Alchemists, but purged from all superstitious taint and directed not toward immediate gain, but toward thoroughgoing knowledge, vastly to increase in the long run the dominion of man over nature. To enjoy such a dominion was, he held, the original destiny of our race. But in vain and impious attempt (described in the Biblical story as “eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil”),  to make laws for himself by “ Moral philosophy", instead of remaining content with the positive commands of God, man had turned aside from his proper business of pursuing “Natural Philosophy”, that is of studying and interpreting the works of God and raising in his own intelligence a true image of the universe; gaining, in other words, such a knowledge of nature’s inner workings as may make it  possible to emulate them. The failure of man hitherto to do this, and the depressing tradition that the processes of chemical combination were necessarily beyond the reach of human imitation, showed only that ancient theories of nature were merely superficial and had not penetrated her true secrets. But in the seat of his brow man may yet “eat his bread”, that is, through resolute and patient, persistence in discriminating observation and well devised experiment, he may wring these secrets from her and turn them to his our advantage. For this, however, a new method of approach is necessary; and this Bacon endeavoured to provide in his "Novum Organum", that is "the new instrument” which was to take the place of the old organ, namely, the collection of Aristotle’s treatises, on logic, which were so called as constituting the proper instrument to be used in reasoning, whatever one was reasoning about.

            Moral philosophy of the past ages was condemned by Bacon as a vain and impious attempt. The knowledge of good and evil merely was a Biblical story that was misinterpreted and mistaken. The ancient theories of nature according to him were merely superficial, for they did not allow the imitation and emulation of the works of God. The real purpose of man’s existence on earth was natural philosophy that is the study and interpretation of the works of God, and raising in his own intelligence a true image of the universe, in other words affecting the emulation of the works of God through the knowledge of nature’s secret workings. Bacon interpreted the Biblical injunction, “But in the sweat of his brow may yet eat his bread”, a man’s right of obtaining dominion over nature and wringing the secrets of nature from her and turning them to his advantage through resolute and patient persistence in determining observation and well devised experimentation. All this happened to be the gist of the philosophy of atomism. There is not the least mention of any consideration of celestial or otherworldly directive, control, or guidance as regards the purpose of man or his material progress. This world alone is the object of all activity and the sole purpose of life. The object of the contemplation of the works of God is not in any way the glorification of the creator, or the reflections of the other world, and therefore the idea of eating up the works of God was soon adopted by the followers of Bacon.

            No obviously this design of Bacon is the best specimen of slander, and worldly love and wealth accumulation, and faith in the eternity of this world as the sole object of one’s life together with the belief in the endless and eternal progress of wealth through the increasing dominion of man over natural resources. Thus it can be seen how atomism is the basic source of the features as have been pointed out by the prophecy as the causes of the emergence of the atomic bomb. Bacon had openly expressed his apprehensions regarding the danger of man’s taking a short-sighted view and falling to the immediate gains leaving the vast Baconian design that of increasing man’s dominion over nature and raising in man’s own intelligence a true image of the universe, and Bacon’s fears only came too true and men soon fell to immediate gain, and, eating up the works of God instead of  contemplating them. Now a days, the atomic reactors and the processing plants that certainly constitute a source of the worst kind of a plague, are being purchased with inseparable eagerness and sold too, merely because the idea of attaining some material gain is associated with the atomic reactors, inspite of all the incident hazards that must follow the deal.

            Inspite of the implicit  belief at the commencement of the European Renaissance of the pioneers of atomism in the possibility of a segregation of the atheistic aspect of atomic theory, and their explicit belief in the necessity and desirability of such a segregation, and their determination to adopt the atomic theory purely in its capacity as the instrument of scientific description and discovery, the noxious and inevitable implications of the philosophy of atomism crept in, till in due course faith was gradually expelled from the field by the atheistic views of atomism which prevailed in every human sphere of mental and practical activity. This assertion may appear as strange in the presence of such overwhelming manifestations of religion that even today flourish in the world. This point is a topic in itself and would not admit of a fuller treatment in a few lines. Religion indeed exists even today in abundance, in various and multifarious forms and constitutes a powerful agency in the greater part of the world. There is no doubt about it. In some parts of the world it still fully occupies the minds and maintains its sovereignty. Yet the factual sway of faith has been reduced to almost a private affair. Even where religion is the main object, it is interpreted in a light favourable to the materialistic tendency of atomism. The exigencies of the present times have made it impossible to see the anti-naturalistic aspect of faith. When, however, the world neared its destruction by the scientific discoveries, nothing but faith could avert the danger and lead mankind out of the trouble. Faith has been oppressed by science but is not dead yet and may be invoked by the mankind in distress in face of the atomic ruin. The appearance of the atomic hell may open the eyes of mankind and there is possibility that they may revert to faith and be saved. In case it is suspected that corruption has crept into religion then not renunciation but reform ought to be the rule. It is hard to deny that wealth today generally figures as a deity in the world and has the practical hold on the minds, and where faith still has hold of the mind it appears as a lamp outdazzled by the light of love or necessity of wealth in an over bearingly materialistic atmosphere. If this world is destined yet to live, the reappearance of faith is an inevitability. The science left alone in the helm of the affairs will never fail to destroy the world. Indeed, if atomism had been universally adopted at the time of its emergence in the time of Democritus, its founder, mankind would have perished due to the evils of immortality and disbelief, the characteristics that are inherent in atomism. If, however, the scientific inquiry and progress had been commenced at the appearance of atomism in the time of Democritus, the atomic bomb would have appeared at its proper stage on the path of scientific discovery from atom to atomic bomb. Whereas in modern age the stage of atomic bomb arrived after about three centuries from the revival of atomism, in ancient times it probably might have taken a little longer, though its appearance was a certainty. The discovery of atom on the course of atomism certainly leads to atomic bomb. If, on the other hand the ancient world had adopted the atomic-energy-for-peace and had abstained from the atomic war, even then, mankind would have been long extinct on earth, and no modern age would have appeared. Thanks only to the reproached laxity of Epicureans in scientific investigation and the general uncogeniality of the atmosphere to the growth of atomism that the pre modern world was saved from the destruction by the atomic bombs, and atomic radiations.

            Both the scientific and the philosophic sides of atomism in modern age progressed side by side in complete mutual harmony and whereas the scientific side beginning with Dalton’s atomic hypothesis (1803) ended after innumerable intermediate stages in the appearance of the atomic bomb (1945), the philosophic influence of atomism has not only provided the necessary urge for the advancement of the scientific side but also has created the necessary atmosphere to ultimately bring about the catastrophic display of the atomic bomb. The logical and scientific consequences of atomism must inevitably appear. The ravenous material utility of the works of God in the plague of atomism spread throughout the world to the extent, and compelled every community to adopt materialism for survival and existence in the prevailing atmosphere to appoint that attempts through sporadic and meagre, have even been made by some to interpret the Quran in conformity to materialism after the Baconian interpretation of the Bible thinking that because the Quran had allowed the material utility of the works of God for the necessities of life, the material progress of this present age too was exactly in conformity to the view of the Quran. Time, however, and the experience be the judge to announce the error of such a view either under the hail of atomic bombs or in the invisible network of deadly atomic radiations when the reality of the materio-spiritual balance of the teachings of the Quran may appear in its true form, but then to what avail. The stock-piles then today exist in the world are enough to destroy this world  many times and there is little time left to judge the teachings of the Quran on this point and react accordingly. May be that the judgement is near at hand and this world will soon be, found on fire.

            There can be no doubt that the pioneers of modern atomism who happened to venture at adopting the long-lost theory, did so solely for its capacity as an instrument of scientific description and discovery in the field of material progress. They being aware of its atheistic aspects, did revive it with caution and with a belief that the associated factor of atheism could be and was to be segregated. This indeed was the view of Pierre Gassandi to whom goes the credit of introducing the theory of atomism in the modern age. This was the view also of Ralph Cudword who otherwise represented atomism as the best system on which to explain all processes not involving vital phenomena, and reiterated his belief that atomism could have no necessary connection with atheism. And this indeed was the belief of most of those pioneers who adopted the theory of atomism, Bacon the ablest and the most discriminating of all the advocates of atomism had a full realisation of some of the dangers of atomism. We understand this from his fears and apprehension. He expressed the shortcomings of the theory and the short-sightedness of his fellow-humans. Unfortunately once the humanity adopted the theory, it went into their brains like wine and caused them to forget every thing except this world and this life. The pioneers had expected faith to exercise as a balancing power against the purely material aspect of atomism, but their hopes proved false and religion lost its ground and the materialistic atomism prevailed throughout. Once the forces of atomism were let loose on earth, every thought of faith, resurrection, judgement, and life in heaven was expelled from human mind and human race turned into a race of wisdomized beasts, selfish and cruel to the possible extremes. All the dead of the past ignorant ages would rush out of their graves in panic at the site of a city in the flaming grip of an atomic explosion, while the home of this present generation has the heart to roast all this mankind alive in the atomic hell without so much as a wrinkle on his brow. Yet with the knowledge that his own destruction too was inevitable along with that of others.

PART-(TWO)

SCIENTIFIC HISTORY OF ATOMISM

            Newton and Boyle both believed that matter was atomic but the atomic theory was not systematically adopted in Chemistry until it was taken up by John Dalton (1766-1844). Dalton’s modernisation of the long neglected atomic theory, marked the end of the previous epoch which has begun with Copernicus, three centuries ago. Dalton’s chief contentions are as follows:-

(a)        Matter consists of atoms, which cannot be created or destroyed. Chemical change consists in the combination of atoms which were previously apart, or the separation of those which were combined. There is no change in the atoms themselves.

(b)        The atoms of a given element, are all exactly alike; and they differ, practically in weight, from those of any other elements. It has been necessary to extend and modify this original hypothesis; but in modern dress they still play a vital part in chemical theory.

            The theory of atomism fell on its path to atom bomb unexpectedly. The atomic theory fell on the path of atom bomb with almost accidental discovery of rays in 1895 by the German Physicist Roentgen. These rays he named as X-rays. This initiated a period of unprecedented progress in physical science. In seeking a possible connection between phosphorescence and x-rays, the French Physicist Becquerel chose by a mere chance, Uranium Nitrate as the substance for investigation and was led unexpectedly in 1896; to the discovery of Radio-activity. This in its turn soon led to the discovery of Radium by Pierre and Madame Curie. In 1905 Einstein enunciated the theory of special relativity and as a consequence from it established the equivalence between mass and energy. The great work of Rutherford on radiations (named by him as Alpha, Beta, and Gamma rays) emitted from radio-active bodies eventually led to the concept of atom as made up of a central core, the nucleus  (that is the heart) with electrons revolving around it ; "a solar system in miniature”. Bohr incorporated the quantum hypothesis of plank and Einstein into the Rutherford’s atom modal and thus formulated his far reaching quantum theory of the atom. In 1919 Rutherford for the first time, achieved the disintegration of an element (Nitrogen) by bombarding it with Alpha particles. A cloud chamber photograph of the same process was soon provided by Blacket. Chadwick, working in Rutherford’s laboratories discovered the neutron in 1932. In the same year and in the same laboratory Crockcroft and Walten brought about the first artificial nuclear transmutation by bombarding lithium with protons accelerated to less than a million volts. New discoveries followed in rapid succession.      

            The phenomenon of Uranium fission was discovered by the German Physical Chemists Hahn and Strassman in 1938. The extraordinary significance of the discovery was soon realised and led to a period of intense activity in the study of atomic nuclei. By 1940 more than a hundred papers had appeared on this subject. Soon after the whole subject went underground, and no further reference appeared in open scientific literature till the end of the war.

            Although the basic discoveries leading to the realisation of the atomic energy came practically all from western Europe, it was not western Europe, but, the USA (soon followed by USSR) which with its colossal industrial and scientific resources, was the first to harness this basic knowledge to practical ends.

            On August 2, 1939, Albert Einstein wrote his now famous letter to President Roosevelt drawing his attention to the possibility as then indicated by some work of Fermi and Szillard of utilising the phenomenon of Uranium fission, for the construction of extremely powerful (weight for weight) bombs of a new type, a million times more powerful than conventional bombs  "Single bomb of this type carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory”, said Einstein. The US Government decided to explore the possibility seriously. The first successful realisation of a (slow neutron) fission chain reaction in the graphite-pile built in a converted Suqash court of the University of Chicago’s stagg-field was achieved by Fermi on December 2, 1942. It is a landmark in the history of nuclear science. It led to the construction of a gigantic plant at Handord on the banks of the Columbia river for the production of Plutonium. Following the work of Uranium diffusion, a plant for the production of Uranium-235 from natural Uranium was built at Oakridge. Another plant at Oakridge produced Uranium-235 employing the principle of electro-magnetic separation. The designing of a workable atom bomb was entrusted to the New Loss Alamos Laboratory (New Mexico) working under the leadership of Oppenheimer. Three bombs were produced by the Middle of 1945. One made of Plutonium was tested on the ground at the Alamogordo sands on July 16, 1945. The other two were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945. Fermi who had achieved first fission chain reaction successfully, failed to achieve a protection against the deleterious reaction of radiations he had played with, and soon succumbed to radiation sickness.

            August 6, 1945, is an unforgettable date. It was on the early morning of this tragic day that the first atomic (U-235) bomb fell on Hiroshima, killing 78,000 men and injuring another 37,000. The second atomic bomb (PU-239) was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The number killed was 24,000 and injured 23,000. The two bombs were about the same power, equivalent to 20 kilotons of TNT, but due to the rather uneven terrain in Nagasaki casualties were less there. The bombs were exploded at about 2,000 feet above ground to obtain as nearly as possible, the maximum area of damage due to the blast of the explosion. The death rate was above 90 percent within half a mile of ground zero (the point on the ground immediately below the burst), above 50 percent between half a mile and one and a half miles. Structural damage was complete including collapse of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete buildings within half a mile from ground zero, and most of the houses within one and a half miles were destroyed. Houses up to two miles were badly damaged, and slightly damaged upto about three miles. The explosion because of the very high temperature produced, emitted intense heat radiation causing fatal burns (and almost instantaneous deaths, due to the intense heat and stock of the Heat-flash) to exposed persons within about three quarters of a mile of ground zero. Though in general most of Japanese atom bomb casualties were due to the combined effects of burns and mechanical injuries, it is estimated that about 60 percent of the deaths (and at least 75 percent of all casualties) were due to burning (heat-flash and fires), about 20 percent due to physical injuries from falling structures and flying debris (as a result of blast damage) and 20 percent due to other causes including nuclear radiation. The damages such as these indeed sounded terrible, and the figures imposing, but the later developments in nuclear weapons have dwarfed the Hiroshima Nagasaki bombs into mere toy bombs. The damages expected from the thermonuclear giant bombs are of a quite different calibre. They destroy, not cities but states.

HELL BOMB:

            The first Soviet atomic that is ordinary fission (like the Hiroshima bomb) explosion took place in August 1949. It was first announced on September 23, 1949, by President Truman, that US Government had incontrovertible proof that the Russians had detonated a fission device. The US Government immediately decided to go on in for the thermonuclear bomb (the so called H or Super bomb). And on January 31, 1950, Truman directed the atomic energy Commission (with David Lilienthal as Chairman), and it's general advisory Committee (with Robert Oppenheimer as Chairman) where opinions on the speed and scale of the efforts to go on into the super had been sharply divided. The conscience of the scientists was perhaps put to severe test. After having seen the catastrophe in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, even the considerations of the national defence could with some difficulty induced some scientists to produce yet another even more terrific atomic bomb than the Hiroshima patterns. Conscience after all smites and its stings may be painful. Also there was another consideration, Namely, that producing more powerful atomic bombs was no remedy for the great wrong which had been done already by the production of nuclear weapons. The production of a more powerful atomic bomb no doubt meant to bring even greater destruction on their own people, for, a greater bomb would be retaliated by yet greater bomb. The plea of national defence however superseded every other consideration, and a very brilliant and indeed very enthusiastic atomist by the name of Edward Teller, successfully experimented a thermonuclear device at Marshall Islands on Ist November, 1952. On November 1,1952 the USA first tested at Marshal Islands in the Pacific Ocean, the thermonuclear device (Mike); Russia followed the suit. The first soviet thermonuclear explosion took place in August, 1953. The USA set off a powerful thermonuclear explosion at Bikini Atoll on March 1,1954. The energy of the explosion being equivalent to about 15 megatons of TNT. In November, 1955, the Russians has a thermonuclear explosion about as powerful as the USA test of March, 1954. Britain, France, China India and Israel came in the wake like the legendary all the five riders from Delhi.

            It was during the March 1954 explosion at Bikini Atoll in Pacific Ocean that a really grim fact dawned on the atomic powers to their horror, namely that the atomic bomb was a very treacherous slave. It could also rebound towards its own master who had unleashed it on his foe, and thus bring about the ruin of both, nay, even of other neutral peoples all over the globe. It so happened that a Japanese fishing boat with a crew of 23 was lying at distance of 90 miles from the testing site. The misfortune of this “Fortunate Dragon”,  that was the name of this boat,  appeared in the form of a powdery fallout of the explosion and began to settle on it to announce to the world that the thermonuclear bomb constituted a serious radiological hazard that could not be kept secret. The frightened crew of the boat rushed towards Japan, and sailing a distance of 2,000 miles in about 13 days reached the port, all sick with radiation. There, the radio-operator died after a few months, but the rest were saved eventually, it was however, proved beyond any doubt that no secrecy could be maintained about the thermonuclear explosion. The news about the potential hazard of radioactive fallout from thermonuclear weapons burst out of deep secrecy. Twenty three Japanese fishermen announced to the world the first fateful news about the lurking catastrophe that lay in wait for all of us. All the official secrecy proved inept, and the inscrutable providence of God, decided otherwise. And when the secret came out, through unexpected channels, the shock of the world opinion rivalled the blast of the Hydrogen bomb itself. It was also proved that no one on the entire earth was safe from the radiational hazards of the thermonuclear bomb explosion, for the air currents in the upper regions of atmosphere circulated the fallout of the thermonuclear bomb around the earth, the fallout gradually settling all over the globe.

CHAPTER-II

DOCTRINAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY OF ANCIENT GREEK ATOMISM

            Lucippus the originator, and, Democritus the developer and introducer of the atomic theory were both atheists. This odious association with the name of these founders of atomism offered a great set back to the theory. Apart from the atheism of its founders, the theory is in fact the mother of atheism. It implies negation of design, plan, purpose, resurrection, judgement, trial, and divine government of the world. Its atheistic nature was not unknown to the people of those times in which it was advanced. The sect of Epicureans adopted this theory purely and purposely for its atheistic aspect. Plato, Aristotle and all the great contemporary thinkers of Greece opposed and condemned such a theory. Their influence being considerable their opposition proved to be an effective check on atomism. Yet it was reserved for a scripture, namely the Quran to describe the modern atomism and to give it out as the cause, and to infer from it the appearance of atomic hell that is the atomic bombs and atomic radiations, describing the characteristics of atomic phenomenon, and warning the mankind against such a danger at a time that is in 7th century A.D. When neither a trace of ancient atomism existed in the world, nor there was any apparent possibility of its revival in the world in any successive age. We will here discuss the doctrinal implications of theory of ancient atomism.

d          The views of early Greek atomism were:-

            “Atoms move about in all directions in a fortuitous concourse in an otherwise empty space”.

            This notion implies a negation of design, divine government of the world, purpose of creation, trial of man on earth. These negations further imply the negation of the necessity of resurrection, judgement and life in heaven.

Q         “Atoms are indivisible and indestructible”.

            This view implies the eternity of this material universe, and hence excludes any possibility of resurrection.

Q “The motion of atoms persist until checked presumably in collision with another atom since the theory denies any other cause”.

This again appears to be an attempt to refute the idea of divine agency. since Aristotle’s view was that the hand of divine power was necessary to push the things to keep them in motion.

Q         “Atoms and space are all that exist”.

            This is a denial of the existence of any spiritual or divine agency in the creation.

Q         “The things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups”.

            Scientifically this view indeed bears some truth. But the philosophic intent behind it appears to be of the negation of any spiritual or divine controlling agency. The arrangement of atoms that move in a fortuitous concourse without any design or control has to be taken as accidental which implies a negation of any designing or controlling authority.

d          “There are different kinds of atoms, distinguished by difference of shape, but individual atoms are too small to be noticed by the senses”.

            This view is scientific and is correct, and may be taken as a beginning of the scientific research of the material universe. Put surely a science based exclusively on the purpose of material benefit as the object of man’s life on earth is liable to end in material explosion.

CHAPTER-III

THE VIEWS OF THE QURAN VERSUS THE VIEWS OF EARLY GREEK ATOMIC THEORY (a)

Q         The view of early atomism is:-

            “Atoms move about in a fortuitous concourse in an otherwise empty space”.

            The Quran allows no such fortuitous concourse of atoms, but rather everything moves under the strict vigilance and control of the Creator according to a perfect design and for an exact purpose. The Quran says:-

            “He (Allah) ordereth the course”.  (Quran XIII-2)

“Gave unto everything its nature, then guided it aright”. (Quran XX-50)

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(a). At times instead of the number of the only part of the Quran actually quoted, the number may be found to refer to a wider text in order to furnish the occasion of gaining greater understanding of the point thus referred

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            “Not an atom’s weight in the earth or in the sky escapeth your Lord, nor what is less than that or greater than that, but it is (written) in a clear book”.

                                                (Quran X-61)

    “Not a leaf falleth but He (Allah) knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or dry but (it is noted) in a clear record”.

                                                (Quran VI-59).

            “O! My dear son! though it be but the weight of a grain or mustard seed, and thought it be in a rock, or in the heavens, or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Lo! Allah is subtle, Aware”.

                                                (Quran XXXI-16)

            “And there is nothing hidden in the heaven or the earth but it is in a clear record”.

                                                (Quran XXVII-75)

            “We are never unmindful of creation”.

                                                (Quran XXXIIX-17)

            The doctrinal implications of the view of fortuitous concourse of atoms negated by the Quran:-

            Fortuitous concourse of atoms negated divine government of the world, design, process and resurrection. But the Quran has the contradictory views on these points. It says:-

            “He (Allah) directeth the ordinance from the heaven unto the earth; then it ascendeth unto him in a day, whereof the measure is a thousand years of that ye reckon. Such is the knower of the invisible and the visible, the mighty, the Merciful, who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay, then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid; then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit; and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye! And they say: when we are lost in the earth, how can we then be recreated? Nay but they are, disbelievers in meeting with their Lord”.

                                                (Quran XXXII-5-10)

            Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine command but the Quran says:-

(a)        “Unto Allah, belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. Allah is able to do all things”.

                                                (Quran III-189)

(b)        “He is the Omnipotent over his slaves, and He is the wise, The knower”.

                                                 (Quran VI-18)

(c)        “Lo! Allah! Unto him belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He quicheth me and He giveth death, and ye have instead of Allah, no protecting friend, nor helper”.

                                                (Quran IX-116)

(d)  “His word is the truth, and His will be the sovereignty on the day when the trumpet is blown. Knower of the visible and the invisible. He is the wise, the aware”.

                                                (Quran VI-73)

(e)        “Allah is the creator of all things, and He is guardian over all things. His are the keys of the heavens and the earth and they who disbelieve the revelations of Allah--- such are they who are losers”.

                                                (Quran XXIX-62-63)

(f)         “Your God is one God; there is no God save Him, the beneficent, the Merciful”.

                                                (Quran II-163)

(g)        “The heavens and the earth stand fast by His command, and afterwards when He calleth you, Lo! from the earth ye will emerge. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and in the earth. All are obedient unto Him. He is who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and it is easier for Him. He is the sublime similitude in the heavens and in the earth. He is the Mighty, the wise”.

                                                (Quran XXX-25-27)

(h)        “Have they not seen in the birds obedient in mid-air (made subservient to the law of Allah)? None holdeth them, Save Allah. Lo! Herein verily, are portents for a people who believe”.

                                                (Quran XVI-79)

(i)         “He unto him belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, He hath chosen no son nor hath He any partner in the sovereignty. He hath created everything and hath meted out for it a measure”.

                                                (Quran XXV-2)

(j)         “Thy Lord bringeth to pass what He willeth and chooseth. Thy have never any choice. Glorified be Allah and exalted above all that they associate (with Him)! And thy Lord knoweth their breasts conceal, and what they publish. And He is Allah; there is no God save Him. His is All praise in the former and the latter (State), and His is the command, and unto Him ye will be brought back, say : have ye thought, if Allah made night ever-lasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is a God beside Allah who could bring you light. Will ye not then hear? Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made day everlasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is of God beside Allah who could bring you night wherein ye rest? Will ye not then, see? of His Mercy hath He appointed for you night and day, that therein ye might rest, and that ye may seek his bounty, and that haply ye may be thankful”.

                                                (Quran XXVIII -68-73)

(k)        “O! company of Jinn and Men, if ye can overpass the bounds of the heavens and the earth, then overpass them. But by (our) leave only shall ye overpass them”.

                                                (Quran LV-23)

(l)         “ Lo Your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and the earth is in six days, then mounted He the throne, He covereth the night with the day, which is in the haste to follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command. His verily is the creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds”.

                                                (Quran VII-54)

            The fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine control and vigilance, while the Quran says:-

(a)        “Lo! Allah hath been a watcher over you”.

                                                (Quran IV-1)

(b)        “Lo! Allah graspeth the heavens and the earth, and they deviate not, and if they were to deviate there is not one that could grasp them after him. Lo! He is ever clement, forgiving”.

                                                (Quran XXXV-41)

(c)        “He knoweth all that entereth the earth and all that emergeth therefrom, and all that cometh down from the sky and all that ascendeth therein; and He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah is seer of what ye do”.

                                                (Quran LVII-4)

(d)        “Lo! Allah is witness over all things”.

                                                (Quran XXII-17)

(e)        “And we are not unmindful of creation”.

                                                (Quran XXIII-17)

(f)   “He is the Omnipotent over His slaves. He sendeth guardians over you”.

                                                (Quran VI-61)

            Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine order of the world. But the Quran negates this negation. It says:-

(a)        “Say, (Unto them) who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or who owneth hearing and sight; and who brings the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and who directeth the course? They will say: Allah then say, Will ye not then keep your duty (unto him)? Such then is Allah your rightful lord. After the truth what is there saving error? How then are ye turned away”.

                                                (Quran X-31-32)

b)         “We have neglected nothing in the book (of our decrees)”

                                                (Quran VI-38)

(c)        “It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night overstrip the day. They float each in an orbit”.

                                                (Quran XXXVI-40)

(d)        “My Lord includeth all things in His knowledge; will ye not then remember”.

                                                (Quran VI-80)

(e)        “And the sky hath He uplifted, and He hath set the measure, that ye exceed not the measure”.

                                                (Quran LV-7-8)

(f)         “And everything with Him is measured”.

                                                (Quran XIII-8)

(g)        “He it is who appointed the sun a splendour and the moon a light and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of her years, and the reckoning”.

                                                (Quran X-5)

(h)        “And for all there will be ranks from what they do, that He may pay them for their deeds”.

                                                (Quran XLVI-19)

            Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates the plan and design of the Creator. But the Quran says:-

            (a)        “Praise be to Allah, Who hath created the heavens and the earth and hath appointed darkness and light. Yet those who disbelieve ascribe rivals unto their Lord. He it is who hath created you from clay, and hath decreed a term for you. A term is fixed with Him. Yet still ye doubt”.

                                                (Quran VI-1-2)

(b)        “He hath created heavens without supports that ye can see, and hath cast not the dearth firm hills, so that it quake not with you; and hath disposed therein all kinds of beasts. And we send down water from the sky and we cause (Plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein”.

                                                (Quran XXXI-10)

(c)        “Allah hath created the heavens and the earth with truth, and that every soul may be repaid what it hath earned. And they will not be wronged”.

                                                (Quran XLV-22)

(d)        “Hath created death and life that He may try you which of you is best in conduct".

                                                (Quran LXVII-2)

(e)        “And when thy Lord said unto the angels, Lo ! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth”.

                                                (Quran II-30)

(f)         “Allah, there is no God save Him. He gathered you all on the day of resurrection whereof there is no doubt. Who is more true in statement than Allah”.

                                                (Quran IV-87)

(g)        “And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and the earth swoon away, save his whom Allah willeth. Then it is blown a second time, and behold them standing waiting. And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the book is set up, and the Prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged. And each soul is paid in full for what it did. And He is better aware of what they do. And those who disbelieve are driven unto hell in troops till, when they reach it and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them. Came there not unto you messengers of your own, reciting unto you the revelations of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this your duty? They say: Yea, verily, but the word of doom for disbelievers is fulfilled. It is said (unto them) enter ye the gates of hell to dwell therein. Thus hapless is the journey’s end of the Scorners. And those who keep their duty to their Lord are driven unto the gardens in troops till, when they reach it, and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Peace be unto you! ye are good, so enter ye (the gardens of delight) to dwell therein. They say: Praise be to Allah who hath fulfilled His promise unto us and has made us to inherit the land, so journeying in the garden where we will so bounteous is the wage of workers. And thou seest the angels thronging round the throne, Hymning the praise of their Lord. And they are judged aright. And it is said. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds”.

                                    (Quran XXXIX-68-75)

            Fortuitous Concourse of atoms negates divine process. But the Quran says:-

(a)        “What He pleaseth will God abrogate or confirm for with Him is the prototype of the book”.

                                                (Quran XIII-39)

(b)        “Lo! Allah it is He who spliteth the grain of corn and the date-stone (for spouting).He bringeth forth the living from the dead, and is the bringer-forth of the dead from the living. Such is Allah. How then are ye perverted? He  is the clever of the day-break, and He hath appointed the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. That is the measuring of the mighty, the wise. And He it is who hath set for you the stars that ye may guide your course by them amid the darkness of the land and the sea. We have detailed our revelations for a people who have knowledge, and He it is who hath  produced you from a single being, and (hath given you) a habitation and a repository. We have detailed our revelations for a people who have understanding. He it is who sendeth down water from the sky, and therewith we bring forth the green blade from which we bring forth the thick-clustered grains; and from the date-palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant branches; and (we bring forth) gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, alike and unlike. Look upon the fruit thereof, when they be a fruit, and upon its ripening. Lo! herein verily are portents or a people who believe”.

                                                (Quran VI-95-100)

(c)        “He it is who fashioneth  you in the wombs as pleaseth Him. There is no Lord save Him, the mighty, the Wise”.

                                                (Quran III-6)

(d)        “Verily we created man from product of wet earth, then placed him as a drop (of seed) in safe lodging; then fashioned we the drop a clot, then fashioned we the clot a little lump, then fashioned we the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the best of creators. Then Lo! after that ye surely die. Then Lo! on the day of resurrection ye are raised (again). And we have created above you seven paths, and we are never unmindful of creation”.

                                                (Quran XXIII-12-17)

(e)        “Hast thou not seen how Allah wafteth the clouds, then gathereth them, then maketh them layers, and thou seest the rain come forth from between them: He sendeth down from the heaven mountains wherein is hail, and smiteth therewith, whom He will, and averteth it from whom He will, the flashing of His lightening all but snatcheth away the sight”.

                                                (Quran XXIV-43)

(f)         “ And thy Lord inspired the bee, saying : Choose thou habitations in the hills and in the trees and in that which they hatch; then eat of all fruits, and follow the ways of thy Lord, made smooth (for thee).There cometh forth from their bellies a drink diverse of hues, wherein is healing for mankind. Lo !Herein is indeed a portent for people who reflect”.

                                                (Quran XVI-68-69)

            Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates divine purpose or any purpose of creation while the Quran has based the creation on a certain purpose. Read:-

            (a)        “And Allah hath created the heavens and the earth with truth and that every soul may be repaid what it hath earned.  And they will not be wronged”.

                                                (Quran XLV-22)

(b)        “Allah it is who raised up the heavens without visible supports, then mounted the throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to be of service, each runneth unto an appointed term: He ordereth the course, He detaileth the revelations, that haply ye may be certain of the meeting with your Lord”.

                                                (Quran XIII-2)

(c)        “And we created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in play, we created them not save with truth; but most of them know not. Assuredly the day of decision is the term of all of them. A day when friend can in naught avail friend, nor can they be helped, save him on whom Allah hath mercy. Lo! He is the mighty, the Merciful”.

                                                (Quran XLIV-38-42)

(d)        “And we created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve. And woe unto those who disbelieve, from the fire”.

                                                (Quran XXXVIII-27)

(e)        “Deemed ye then that we created you for naught, and that ye would not be returned unto us?”.

                                                (Quran XXIII-115)

(f)     “Hath created death and life that He may try you, which of you is best in conduct”.

                                                (Quran LXVIII-2)

(g)        “He it is who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth, and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by (the test of) that which He hath given you. Thy Lord is swift in prosecution, and Lo! He is forgiving, Merciful”.

                                                (Quran VI-165)

(h)        “I created the Jinn, and mankind only that they might worship Me.  I seek no livelihood from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me”.

                                                (Quran LI-56-57)

(i)       “Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His Sovereignty) for men of understanding. Such as remember Allah, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, (and say) : Our Lord! Thou created not this in vain. Glory be thee: Preserve us from the doom of fire”.

                                                (Quran-III-190-191)

(j)         “Every soul will taste of death. And ye will be paid on the day of resurrection only that which ye have fairly earned. Whoso is removed from the fire and is made to enter paradise, he indeed is triumphant. The life of this world is but comfort of illusion”.

                                                (Quran III-185)

            Fortuitous concourse of atoms negates indirectly the moral philosophy and moral laws; and it is very touchy point. And though the vulgar might find it difficult to comprehend, yet the subtle advocate of atomism, and the founder of atomism in this modern age, namely Bacon did clearly perceive this delicate point in the ancient atomism, and he did openly and clearly condemn the pursuit of moral philosophy as the repetition of Adam’s first transgression of God’s commands that forbade him the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and maintained that man had undertaken the pursuit of moral philosophy merely to give himself the law. (Read his Advancement of Learning). And the ancient Greek atomism no doubt has no room for moral philosophy and this is a point very important; for, the revealed religion is based on the very foundation of moral philosophy. Quran, like every other, scripture has its basis on moral philosophy.  According to the Quran the set of the laws that function in this physical universe emanate from the origin of moral philosophy.  It says:-

            “And the sky He hath uplifted; and He hath set the measure. That ye exceed not the measure, but observe the measure strictly, nor fall short thereof”.

                                                (Quran LV-7-9)

The Quran enjoins strict adherence to moral laws and man’s covenant with Allah. It says:-

            “Lo Allah enjoineth justice and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbiddeth lewdness and abomination, and wickedness. He exhorteth you in order that ye may take heed. Fulfil the Covenant of Allah when ye have covenanted, and break not your oaths after the preservation of them, and after ye have made Allah surety over you! Allah knoweth what ye do”.

                                                (Quran XVI-90-91)

            “Ye are the best folk that hath been raised up onto mankind. Ye enjoin the just, and ye forbid the evil, and ye believe in God”.

                                                 (Quran 3 X 110)

(II)       Atoms according to early Greek atomic theory are indivisible, indestructible:-

            Now the modern discoveries of science have repudiated this assertion by providing the divisibility and destructibility of atoms. The Quran has explained this fact fourteen hundred years ago. It says:-

                        “Hotama" (Quran -CIV-4)

            Hotama is a kind of fire and literally means crusher, breaker etc. The description of this kind of fire given by the Quran shows that it breaks the nuclei of atoms.

            The notion of indestructibility of atoms implied eternity of this physical universe, which further implied a negation of the possibility of resurrection, judgement and life in heaven. While according to the Quran this present universe is transient only, and the fact of resurrection and the other life in heaven is a certainty.

            The Universe according to the Quran not eternal but transient. It says :-

            “Allah is He who raised up the heavens without visible supports, then mounted the throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to be of service, each runneth to an appointed term”.

                                                (Quran XIII-2)

            Life according to the Quran not eternal. It says:-

(a)        “And coin for them the similitude of the life of the world as water which we send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingleth with it and then becomes dry twigs that the winds scatter. Allah is able to do all things”.

                                                (Quran XVIII-45)

(b)        “Every one that is thereon will pass away: there remaineth but the countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory”.

                                                (Quran LV-26-27)

            The notion implied by ancient atomism that the life of this present world is the only life erroneous according to the Quran:-

            “And they say, There is naught save our life of the world, and we shall not be raised (again). If thou couldst see when they are set before their Lord! He will say: Is not this real? .They will say: Yea, verily by our Lord! He will say: Taste now the retribution for that ye used to disbelieve”.

                                                (Quran VI-29-30)

            Disintegration of this universe promised by the Quran. It says:-

            “The day when we shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll. As we began the first creation we shall repeat it. (It is) a promise (binding) upon us. Lo! We are to perform it”.

                                                (Quran XXI-104)

            Resurrection asserted by the Quran. It says:-

            “We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them save with truth, and Lo! the hour is surely coming”.

                                                (Quran XV-85)            Resurrection argued by the Quran. It says:-

            “Thinketh man that he is to be left aimless? Was he not a drop of fluid which gushed forth? Then he became a clot; then (Allah) shaped and fashioned and made of him a pair, the male and the female. Is not He (who doth so) able to bring the dead to life?”.

                                                (Quran LXXV-36-40)

            Resurrection examplified by the Quran. It says:-

            “And Allah it is who sendeth the winds and they raise cloud; then we lead it unto a dead land and revive therewith the earth after its death. Such is resurrection”.

                                                (Quran XXXV-9)

Q     Necessity of realising the fact of resurrection insisted upon by the Quran, It says:-

            “Say: Travel in the land and see how He originated creation, then Allah bringeth forth the later growth. Lo! Allah is able to do all things. He punisheth whom He will and showeth mercy unto whom He will, and unto Him ye will be turned”.

                                                (Quran XXIX- 20-21)

            The purpose of discovering the origin of life according to the Quran is to realise the certainty of the second life. Darwin famed for his pursuit of the origin of life and no such thought as the second life in the course of his researches.

            The universe unlike the early Greek atomists is regarded desirable by the Quran and is followed inevitably by resurrection and judgement, and life in heaven. The Quran says:-

            “When the sun is over-thrown, and when the stars fall, and when the hills are moved, and when the camel big with young are abandoned, and when the wild beasts are herded together, and when the seas rise, and when souls are re-united, and when the girl child that was buried alive is asked, for what  sin she was slain, and when the pages are laid open, and when the sky in torn away, and when hell is lighted, and when the garden is brought nigh, (then) , every soul will know what it hath made ready”.

                                                (Quran LXXXI-1-14)

And:-

            “When the trumpet shall sound one blast, and the earth with the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash, then on that day will the event be fall. And the heavens will split asunder, for that day it will be frail. And the angels will be on the sides thereof, and eight will uphold the throne of their Lord that day above them. On that day ye will be exposed, not a secret of you will be hidden. Then as for him who is given his record in his right hand, he will say: Take : Read my book: Surely I knew that I should have to meet my reckoning, then he will be in blissful state in a high garden whereof the clusters are in easy reach. (And it will be said unto those therein): eat and drink at ease for that which ye sent on before you in past days. But as for him who is given his record in his left hand, he will say: Oh, would that I had not been given my book and knew not what my reckoning! Oh, would that it had been death! My wealth hath not availed me, my power hath gone from me. (It will be said): Take him and fatter him. And then expose him to hell-fire. And then insert him in a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits. Lo! He used not to believe in Allah the tremendous, and urged not on the feeding of the wretched. Therefore hath he no lover here this day, nor any food save filth which none but sinners eat”.

                                    (Quran LXIX- 13-37)

            These descriptions of hell and paradise have been given here that the two paradises, that is this one of modern Baconian type, and that one promised by Allah in the next world may be seen in comparison. So Also the two types of hell, that is this one of this Baconian atomic age and that one of the next world, after death on resurrection.

III.       The motion of the atoms according to the ancient atomism persists until checked presumably in collision with another atom, since the theory denies any other cause:-

            This idea of early atomism stands in radical opposition to that of Aristotle whose view was that some pushing hand was necessary to move the things. The problem appears more of a pre-disposed imagination than is based on any experimental data. Aristotle believed in God and divine government of the world, so he was naturally inclined to the idea of the presence of the divine hand in the function of the universe. But the early Greek atomists were in the mood of freeing this world from divine implications. The Quran evidently is on the side of Aristotle and the motion in the universe is essentially attributed to Allah. The modern science, however, has discovered the view of early atomists as a guide to the principle of inertia. Inertia, however is perceptible to a particular stage in the realm of physics, and thereafter the field may presumably be left to the divine power of the creator. Conventionality in such a matter is not objectionable, since ultimate reality is out of the pale of science. The Quran says:-

            “Hast thou not seen how Allah wafteth the clouds, then gathereth them, then maketh them layers”.

                                                (Quran XXIV-43)

            “O, mankind, Your Lord is He who driveth for you the ship upon the sea that ye may seek of His bounty. Lo! He was ever Merciful toward you”.

                                                (Quran XVII-66)

            “He covereth the night with the day, which is in haste to follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command. His verily is all creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds”.

                                                (Quran VII-54)

            “Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made night everlasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is a God besides Allah who could bring you light? Will ye not then heed? Say: Have ye thought if Allah made day ever-lasting for you till the day of resurrection, who is a God besides Allah who could bring you night wherein ye rest? Will ye not then see?’.

                                                (Quran XXVIII-71-72).          

            “And of His portents are the ships, like banners on the sea; if He will, He clameth the wind so that they keep still upon its surface. Lo! herein verily are signs for every steadfast grateful (heart)”.

                                                (Quran XLII-32-33)

            “O, Company of Jinn and men, if ye can overpass the bounds of the heavens and the earth, then overpass them. But by (our) leave only shall ye overpass them”.

                                                (Quran LV-33)

            “And of His signs is this. He sendeth herald winds to make you taste His mercy, and that ships may sail at His command and that ye may seek His favour, and that haply ye may be thankful”.

                                                (Quran XXX-46

            Now mark that all these things which Allah has claimed to do are things that are out of man’s power to do and Allah only can do. And see also, that there are two ways of saying a thing, namely : Either by resorting to the description of the natural process, or simply attributing the work to the will and power of God. And when God claims to command the sun, the moon and other natural phenomena. He speaks as the originator as well as the supervisor of the universe. Quran always speaks from the view point of God the Creator. This may be seen when Allah challenges the false Gods to create but a piece of straw. This perhaps does not refer to the preparation by some synthetic methods, but originally and without talking the material from Allah’s world.

IV.       According to ancient atomic theory atoms and space are all that exist:-

            This is a denial of spiritual, while according to the Quran there are spiritual beings in the world. Mentioning the existence of angels and jinn and other unknown creations. The Quran says:-

            “It wanteth little but that the heavens be rent in sunder from above, the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord”.

                                                (Quran XLII-5)

            And (Angels) are deputed to take an account of man’s actions:-

            “And surely there are guardians over you. Honourable recorders. They know what ye do”.

                                                (Quran LXXXII-10-12)

            And they cause men to die:-

            “When death comes to one of you, Our messengers cause him to die, and they are not amiss”.

                                                (Quran VI-61)

            And they are rational beings; the Quran says:-

            “And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place my viceroy in the earth, they said, wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood”.

                                                (Quran II-30)

            "And the jinn did we create aforetime of essential fire”.

                                                (Quran XV-27)

            “And He createth that which ye knew not”.

                                                (Quran XVI-8)

            Although the atomists may claim the possibility of the atomic structure of these spiritual beings, yet this view of the early atomism appears as far too blunt and uncompromisably rude to atomitically explain the spiritual beings.

V.        The early atomic theory says the things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups: The combination of the notion of fortuitous concourse of atoms and the idea of their arrangement does not at all appear as a happy congruity, or a happy combination . It is surely a contradiction in terms.

                        The Quran, however, agrees with the idea of arrangement of atoms, though in a design pre-planned. It says:-

            “Lo! We have created everything by measure”.

                                                (Quran LIV-49)

            The intrinsic arrangement of invisible atoms appears even in the visible objects. The Quran says:-

            “And He it is who sendeth down water from the sky, and therewith we bring forth buds of every kind, we bring forth the green blade from which we bring forth the thick-clustered grain (growing in rows); and from the date-palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant branches; and (we bring forth) gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate alike and unlike”.

                                                (Quran VI-99)

VI.       The early atomic theory says, "There are different kinds of atoms, distinguished by difference of shape, but individual atoms are too small to be noticed by senses”.

            The Quran says:-

            “And whatsoever He hath created for you in the earth of diverse hues, Lo! therein is indeed a portent for people who take heed”.

                                                (Quran XVI-13)

This diversity of hues may be observed in visible objects.  The Quran says:-

            “Hast thou not seen that Allah causeth water to fall from the sky, and we produce therewith fruit of different hues; and among the hills are streaks white and red of diverse hues, and (others) raven black; and of men and beasts and cattle; in like manner, diverse hues? The erudite among His bondsmen fear Allah alone, Lo! Allah is mighty, forgiving”.

                                    (Quran XXXV-27-28)

            The spirit, however, is not comprehensible by man, the Quran says:-

            “They will ask thee concerning the spirit, say: The spirit is by command of my Lord, and of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little”.

                                                (Quran XVII-85)

            The early atomists gave out the individual atoms as too small to be noticed by the senses. The Quran gives out the creators as a being incomprehensible by vision. It says, “Vision comprehendeth him not, but He comprehendeth (all) vision, He is subtle, the aware”.

                                                (Quran VI-103)

And:-

            "Allah is the knower of the visible, and the invisible”.

                                                (Quran VI-73)

VII.     One passage only of the Quran treats the entire theory of early Greek atomism:-

            The early Greek atomic theory through its idea of the fortuitous concourse of atoms excluded the idea of a plan, design, divine government of the world, purpose, trial, resurrection, judgement, second life in heaven, and indeed the surveillance, vigilance, even interest of the Creator.

            The idea of the persistence of atoms in motion until checked in a collision with another atom insidiously implies the absence of any control of divine power. The idea that of the non--existence of anything other than the atoms and space implies the non-existence of spiritual beings. The view that the things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups is yet another hints of the denial of divine influence in the creation. In short the entire theory so founded on anti-religion and atheistic foundation, and breathes an air of dark atheism. This is a theory purposely set against the established doctrines of revealed faith and formulated with cold blooded deliberateness. Yet it presents a unique example of unparalleled success as a deceptive theory in the entire history of philosophy. Its force has been in its scientific basis. Its popularity has its origin in the sweetness of physical comfort. But let us see the wonder of a scripture, that is the Quran, the champion of the Scriptures in this Baconian age, how it has gathered the complete refutation of the entire theory of ancient atomism in but one passage, Read  and judge yourself. It says:-

            “Allah is He who created the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them in six days. Then He mounted His throne. Ye have not, beside him a protecting friend or meditator. Will ye not then remember? He directeth the ordinance from the heavens unto the earth; then it assendeth unto the earth; then it assendeth unto him in a day, whereof the measure is a thousand years of that ye reckon. Such is the knower of the invisible and the visible, the mighty, the merciful. Who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay; then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid, then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit, and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye! And they say! When we are lost in the earth, how can we then be recreated? Nay but they are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord. Say: The angel of death who has charge concerning you, will gather you, and afterward unto your Lord ye will be returned. Couldst thou but see when the guilty hang their heads before their Lord, (and say) .Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, send us back: We will do right, now we are sure. And if we had so willed; we could have given every soul its guidance, but the word from Me concerning evil-doers took effect: that I fill hell with the Jinn and mankind together. So taste (the evil of your deeds). For-as- much-as ye forget the meeting of this your day; Lo! We forget you. Taste the doom of immortality because of what ye used to do”.

                                    (Quran XXXII-4-14)

CHAPTER-IV

THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN THE ANCIENT AND MODERN FOLLOWERS OF ATOMISM:

The sect of Epicureans in ancient Greece adopted the theory of atomism  as a fundamental part of their system, not indeed for its scientific utility, but its apparent inconsistency with the doctrine of divine government which they regarded as the source of worst evil that affects mankind, namely the fear of death and of what may come after it. They adopted as their own the atomic theory of Democritus; but in their hands it was neither enabled to meet the objections that may be raised against it as a theory of the ultimate nature of reality, nor made it exhibit its great capacities as an instrument of scientific description and discovery. But the theory of Epicurean pleasure soon had its effects, so that the name of Epicureans very early became a synonym for sensualist, till at last this sect was wiped out of existence, and instead the teachings of Christianity gained the ground.

            In contrast with the ancient sect of Epicureans, the modern mankind during the Western Renaissance adopted the theory of atomism purely for its scientific aspect with a discreet and determined rejection of its atheistic aspect, and indeed with an assurance that it was possible to keep the two aspects apart, and to adopt the one desired. But it is sad observation that the atheistic aspect of atomism sustained its existence along with the march of modern progress, and maintained its ever-increasing effects both openly and insidiously. And it may be clearly observed, and lamented, that whereas the ancient sect of Epicureans by adopting the atheistic aspect of atomism had after a short and merry life of debauch individually and collectively vanished in misery, shame and affliction, this modern age of Baconian atomism is by adopting the scientific aspect of atomism, and after obtaining astonishing success in scientific achievements for physical comfort now approaching the logical and scientific consequence of atomism, namely a most grievous, a most painful and a most disgraceful and in the flames of atomic hell that is the deadly atomic radiations and devastating atomic bombs. Atomism has served both the parties ill according to their respective deserts. In fact the features of Epicureanism have been manifest among the followers of the wealth-seeking, comfort-loving philosophy of modern atomism.

            A comparison and contrast, resemblance and variance between the human mind of the Epicurean and the modern age appears to be a subject worthy of the observation of a zealous, keen-sighted philosopher with a view to assessing how far human nature has been enlightened or un-enlightened during the passage of all these centuries under the influence of atomism. Plato has left us an attempt of a general kind in the form of a very famous and immortal simile, named as the Simile of the cave. It appears on the title page of "The Mysterious Universe” with much appropriateness and may be read as follows:-

PLATO'S SIMILE:-

"And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or un-enlightened.

Behold human beings living in an underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here they have been from their childhood and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets.

I see

And do you see, I said, men passing along the wall carrying all sorts of vessels, and statues and figures of animals made of wood and stones and various materials, which appear over the wall? ,,,,,

You have shown me a strange image, and they are strong prisoners.

Like ourselves, I replied; and they see only their own shadows, or the other shadows which the fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave?

True, He said; how could they see any thing but the shadows if they were never allowed to move their heads?

And of the objects which are being carried in the like manner they would only see the shadows?

Yes, he said.

To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images.

                        (Plato Republic Book-VII)

            It may come as a real surprise to the world that the Quran has a similar simile. It is first time now in history, that I am revealing this really surprising fact which appears as another proof of Quran's miraculous, all-pervading nature. Following is the text:-

"Y.S. (I swear) by the instructive Quran that thou art (one) of the messengers (of Allah sent to show) the right way. This is a revelation of most mighty, the merciful Allah that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned and who live in negligence. (Our) sentence has justly been pronounced against a greater part of them, wherefore they shall not believe. We have put yokes on their necks, which (come) upto their chins, and they are forced to hold up their heads; and we have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and thus have covered them with darkness, wherefore they shall not see. It shall be equal unto them whether thou preach unto them, or do not preach unto them, they shall not believe. But thou shalt preach (with effect) unto him only who followeth the admonition, and feareth the merciful in secret. Wherefore bear good tidings unto him of mercy and honourable reward. Lo. We it is who bring the dead to life. We record that which they send before (them) and their footsteps. And all things we kept in a clear register".

                                    (Quran-XXXVI1 to 12)

Unfortunately not only the dreaded aspect of ancient atomism, that of its atheistic features has recurred in this age of a modern atomism but also it has been proved that atomism being a worldly philosophy is as dangerous and destructive as any theistic philosophy. Its logical and scientific consequence, the atomic hell, is there as the proof. As far as the two similes quoted above are concerned, the reader may well be apprised of the different, peculiar light in which they appear. And mark the chains of this universal economico-industrial set up of this present Baconian age.

CHAPTER V

THE TWELVE PAGES OF THE MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE EXAMINED:-

            The philosophical views expressed in these twelve pages are not of Sir James Jeans himself. He only has discussed them as the conceivable probabilities ammoniating from the particular situations of science against the inadequacy of its established facts hitherto diverse. These probabilities, however, are exactly in line with the philosophical and doctrinal trends of ancient Greek Atomism, and are not merely presumable probabilities but rather are the viewers maintained by a goodly number of orthodox among the scientists with the entire mankind at their heels. None, however, could have discussed the present potentialities and the future probabilities of the present science better than Sir James Jeans. Nor the short-comings and the limitations thereof could have been exposed in a better way. It is the best and the most realistic picture I have so far seen drawn by anyone, in this modern age. Look, however, particularly for the doctrinal link between this particular philosophy and ancient Greek atomism in the following sections.

SECTION (i)

THE TWELVE PAGES OF "THE MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE"

                     "A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth, but the majority are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare. Here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths. And the total number of stars in the Universe is probably something like the total number of grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. Such is the littleness of our home in space, when measured up against the total substance of the Universe.

            This vast multitude of stars are wandering about in space. Some form groups and journey in company but the majority are solitary travellers. And they travel in a universe so spacious, that it is an event of almost unimaginable rarity for a star to come anywhere near to another star. For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation, like a ship on an empty ocean. In a scale model in which the stars are ships, the average ship will be well over a million miles from its nearest neighbour, whence it is easy to understand why a ship seldom finds another within hailing distance.

We believe nevertheless, that some two thousand million years ago this rare event took place and that a second star wandering blindly through space happened to come within hailing distance of the sun. Just as the sun and moon raise tides on the earth, so this second star must have raised tides on the surface of the sun. But they would be very different from the puny tides which the small mass of the moon raises in our oceans; a huge tidal wave must have travelled over the surface of the sun, ultimately forming a mountain of prodigious height, which would rise ever higher and higher as the cause of the disturbance came nearer and nearer. And, before the second star began to recede its tidal pull had become so powerful that this mountain was torn to pieces and threw off small fragments of itself, much as the crest of a wave throws off spray. These small fragments have been circulating around their parent sun ever since. They are the planets great and small of which our earth is one.

The sun and other stars we see in the sky are all intensely hot ---far too hot for life to be able to obtain or retain a footing on them. So also no doubt were the ejected fragments when they were first thrown off. Gradually they cooled until now they have but little intrinsic heat left, their warmth being derived almost entirely from the Radiation which the sun pours down on them. In course of time we know not how, when or why, one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life. It started in simple organisms whose vital capacities consisted little beyond reproduction and death. But from these humble beginnings emerged a stream of life which, advancing through ever greater and greater complexity, has culminated in beings whose lives are largely centred in their emotions and ambitions, their aesthetic appreciations, and religions in which their highest hopes and noblest aspirations lie enshrined.

Although we cannot speak with any certainty, it seems most likely that humanity came into existence in some such way as this. Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand, we attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe which surrounds our home in space, and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror. We find the universe terrifying because of its fast meaningless distances, terrifying because of its inconceivable long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of extreme loneliness, and because of the material insignificance of our home in space --- a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world. But above all else we find the universe terrifying, because it appears to be indifferent to life like our own; emotion, ambition and achievement, art and religion all seem equally foreign to its plan. Perhaps indeed we ought to say it appears to be actually hostile to life like our own. For the most part, empty space is so cold that all life in it would be frozen, most of the matter in space is so hot as to make life on it impossible, space is traversed, and astronomical bodies continually bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is inimical to, or even destructive of life.

Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident. The use of such a word need not imply any surprise that our earth exists, for accident will happen, and if the universe goes on for long enough every conceivable accident is likely to happen in time. It was, I think, Huxley who said that six monkeys set to strum unintelligently on typewriters for millions of millions of years, would be bound in time to write all the books in British Museum. If we examined the last page which a particular monkey had typed and found that it had chanced in its blind strumming, to type a Shakespeare Sonnet, we should rightly regard the occurrence as a remarkable accident, but if we looked through all the millions of pages which the monkeys had turned off in untold millions of years, we might be sure of finding a Shakespeare Sonnet somewhere among them, the product of blind play of chance. In the same way, millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with that special kind of accident which calls planetary system into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky' planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space.

This rarity of planetary systems is important, because so far as we can see, life of the kind we know on earth could only originate on planets like the earth. It needs suitable physical conditions for its appearance, the most important of which is a temperature of which substances can exist in the liquid state. The stars themselves are disqualified by being too hot. We may think of them as a vast collection of fires scattered throughout space, providing warmth in a climate which is at most some four degrees above absolute zero--- about 484 degrees of frost on our Fahrenheit scale -- and is, even lower in the vast stretches of space which lie out beyond the Milky Way. Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is a temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquids boil.

Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen; inside, it would be shrivelled up. At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of space. And even inside them, life must be of very rare occurrence for it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our own sun has done. That probably only about one star in 100,000 has a planet revolving round it in the small zone in which life is possible.

Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe, can have been designed primarily to produce life like our own; had it been so surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product. At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by-product; we living things are somehow off the main line.

We do not know whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural, and indeed almost inevitable, that life should come. Another holds that after one accident had brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life. The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms -- carbon such as we find in soot or lamp-black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water; nitrogen, such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on. Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the new-born earth. At intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell---indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? Or, to put it in another way, could a sufficiently skilful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of "Meccano" and then make it go? We do not know the answer, when it comes it will give us some indication whether other worlds in space are inhabited like ours, and so must have the greatest influence on or interpretation of the meaning of life --- it may well reproduce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo's Astronomy or Darwin's Biology.

We do, however, know that while living matter consists of quite ordinary atoms, it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extraordinary large bunches or "Molecules".

Most atoms do not possess this property. The atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen, for instance may combine to form molecules of Hydrogen, (H 2 or H3) of oxygen or Ozone (O 2 or O 3), of water (H 2 O), or of Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2 O 2) but none of these compounds contains more than four atoms. The addition of Nitrogen does not greatly change the situation; the compounds of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen all contain comparatively few atoms. But the further addition of Carbon completely transforms the picture; the atoms of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon combine to form molecules containing hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of atoms. It is of such molecules that living bodies are mainly formed. Until a century ago it was commonly supposed that some "vital force" was necessary to produce these and other substances which entered into the composition of the living body. Then Wholer produced Urea CO (NH2)2 which is a typical animal product, in his laboratory, by the ordinary processes of chemical synthesis, and other constituents of the living body followed in due course. Today one phenomenon after another which was at one time attributed to "vital force" is being traced to the action of the ordinary processes of Physics and Chemistry. Although the problem is still far from solution, it is becoming increasingly likely that what specially distinguishes the matter of living bodies is the presence not of a "vital force" but of the quite common place element Carbon, always in connection with other atoms with which it forms exceptionally large molecules. If this is so, life exists in the universe only because the Carbon atom possesses certain exceptional properties. Perhaps Carbon is rather noteworthy chemically as forming a sort of transition between the metals and non-metals, but so far nothing in the physical constitution of the Carbon atom is known to account for its very special capacity for binding other atoms together. The Carbon atom consists of six electrons revolving around the appropriate central nucleus, like six planets revolving around a central sun; it appears to differ from its two nearest neighbours in the table of chemical atoms, the atoms of Boron and Nitrogen, only in having one electron more than the former and one electron fewer than the latter. Yet this slight difference must account in the last resort for all the difference between life and absence of life. No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possess these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn't yet fathomed it.

Other similar cases are known to Chemistry. Magnetic phenomenon appear in a tremendous degree in Iron and in a lesser degree in its neighbours Nickel and Cobalt. The atoms of these elements have 26,27 and 28 electrons respectively. The magnetic properties of all other atoms are almost negligible in compassion. Somehow, then, although again, mathematical physics has not yet unravelled how, magnetism depends on the peculiar properties of the 26, 27 and 28 electron atoms, especially the first. Radio-activity provides a third instance, being confined, with insignificant exceptions, to atoms having from 83 to 92 electrons; again we do not know why.

Thus Chemistry can only tell us to place life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity. The Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws. As a consequence of these laws, atoms having certain definite numbers of electrons, namely 6, 26 to 28 and 83 to 92, have certain special properties, which show themselves in the phenomena of life, magnetism and Radio-activity respectively. An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws. If some other set of laws had been chosen, other special atoms might have had other special properties associated with them. We cannot say what, but it seems a priori unlikely that either radioactivity or magnetism or life would have figured amongst them. Chemistry suggests that, like magnetism and radioactivity, life may merely be an accidental consequence, of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed.

Again the word "Accidental" may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one special set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this were his way of Creating life? So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except perhaps by the remark, that when a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed. If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe.

A trivial analogy may exhibit the situation in a clearer light. An un-imaginative sailor accustomed to tying knots might think it would be impossible to cross the ocean if tying knots were impossible. Now the capacity for tying knots is limited to space of three dimensions, no knot can be tied in a space of 1,2,4,5 or any other number of dimensions. From this fact our unimaginative sailor might reason that a beneficent Creator must have had sailors under his special patronage; and have chosen that space should have three dimensions in order that tying knots and crossing the ocean should be possibilities in the universe he had created ---in brief space, was of three dimensions, so that there could be sailors. This and the argument outlined above seem to be much on a level, because life as a whole and the tying knots are pretty much on a level in that neither of them forms more than an utterly insignificant fraction of the total activity of the materiel universe.

So much for the surprising manner in which so far as science can at present inform us, we came into being. And our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence or to force the destiny which fate has in store for our race.

Life of the kind we know can only exist under suitable conditions of light and heat. We only exist ourselves because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun; upset the balance in either direction of excess or defect and life must disappear from the earth. And the essence of the situation is that the balance is very easily upset.

Primitive man living in the temperate zone of the earth, must have watched the ice-age, descending on his home with something like terror; each year the glaciers came farther down into the valleys; each winter the sun seemed less able to provide the warmth needed for life. To him as to us the universe must have seemed hostile to life.

We of these later days, living in the narrow temperate zone surrounding our sun and peering into the far future, see an ice-age of a different kind threatening us. Just as Tantalus standing in a lake so deep that he only just escaped drowning, was yet destined to die of thirst, so it is the tragedy of our race that it is probably destined to die of cold, while the greater part of the substance of the universe still remains too hot for life to obtain a footing. The sun, having no extraneous supply of heat, must necessarily emit ever less and less of its life-giving radiation, and as it does so, the temperate zone of space, within which alone life can exist, must close in around it. To remain a possible abode of life, our earth would need to move in ever nearer and nearer to the dying sun. Yet, science tells us that, so far from its moving inwards inexorable dynamical laws are even now driving it, ever farther away from the sun into the outer cold and darkness. And, so far as we can see, they must continue to do so until life is frozen off the earth, unless indeed some celestial collision or cataclysm intervenes to destroy life even earlier by a more speedy death. This prospective fate is not peculiar to our earth, other suns must die like our own, and any life there may be on other planets must meet the same inglorious end.

Physics tells the same story, as Astronomy, for independently of all astronomical considerations the general physical principle known as the second law of thermodynamics predicts that there can be but one end, to the universe ---------- a "Heat-Death" in which the total energy of the universe is uniformly distributed, and all the substance of the universe is at the same temperature. This temperature is going to be so low as to make life impossible. It matters little by what particular road this final state is reached; all roads lead to Rome, and the end of the journey cannot be other than universal death.

Is this, then, all that life amounts to --- to stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life, and which, to all appearance, is either totally indifferent or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging onto a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration, and that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been?

Astronomy suggests the question, but it is, I think, mainly to physics that we must turn for an answer. For, Astronomy can tell us of the present arrangement of the universe, of the vastness and vacuity of space, and of our own insignificance therein, it can even tell us some thing as to the nature of the changes produced by the passage of time. But we must probe deep into the fundamental nature of things before we can expect to find the answer to our question. And this is not the province of Astronomy, rather we shall find that our quest takes us right into the heart of modern physical science".

  (The Mysterious Universe page 1 to 12)

SECTION (ii)

THE ENDEAVOUR OF THE PHILOSOPHERS

IN THESE TWELVE PAGES : AN ECHO OF

THE ANCIENT GREEK ATOMISM.

            Modern science has during its three centuries of constant struggle made a number of discoveries. As established facts and as hypotheses, and our philosopher has placed his interpretations on them. Yet out of various probable lines of interpretations, the philosopher has assumed a line that evidently appears as the echo of the doctrinal implications of early Greek atomism, implications that are basically atheistic and exact antithesis of the doctrines of revealed religion.

            Science has discovered that:-

(a)        “Our home, this earth is incredibly small in comparison to the unimaginably vast-universe-around it.

(b)        Life could exist only in zones that are utterly insignificant against the immensely vast regions of the universe incapable of producing life.

(c)        Life can only exist on the planets like earth and such planets are a rarity.

            From these facts our philosopher has argued that this universe could not have been designed primarily to produce life like our own. Had it been so, a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product could have been expected. "At first glance at least", he says, "Life appeared as unimportant by-product. We living things are somehow off the main line", he thought.

              Although the early Greek Atomists did not hint at this point, yet the line of the argument of our philosopher follows the same tract. The point of the insignificance of earth and life upon it will deprive man of his position of special honour on earth and in the creation, and will throw away life from its position of honour in the sight of the creator, and will thus strike at the doctrine of trial, purpose, resurrection and all the religious doctrines. It has to be observed that religion itself has assigned a very low place to the life in this world. But it has done so against the eternal life of the next world for which the sacrifice of this transient life is desirable. But what a difference exits between the two similar approaches to the same question. Our philosopher approaches to the same question. Our philosopher and the religion both regard this life insignificant. Yet our philosopher strikes at the very root of religion by calling the life insignificant, while religion strikes at the root of atheism by calling this life insignificant.

            Science has discovered that physics played an incomparably greater part in the universe than biology. From this our philosopher has inferred that unless the Creator were not a magnified man-like being activated by feelings and interests like our own, it were hard to believe that life could form a special interest of the great architect of the universe judging from the utter insignificance of life. If then life were so-insignificant in the sight of the Creator, all the doctrinal structure of revealed religion, man’s vicegerency, trial, purpose, resurrection would  stumble down and disappear a sailor who is capable of forming a link between the process of tying the knots and the design of the Creator of the universe is in the sight of our philosopher a fellow totally devoid of the faculty of imaginations, while monkeys a strumming on a type-writer unintelligibly were likely to work wonders. Plato or Aristotle would have wondered at such a philosophy appearing in an age in which man’s knowledge were regarded to have reached its utmost pinnacles.

            Our philosopher has discovered this universe as indifferent to life, so that emotion, ambition, and achievement, art and religion all were foreign to its plan. For the most part empty space was very cold, and most of the matter was extremely hot. Space was traversed, and astronomical bodies constantly bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds much of which is probably inimical to, or even destructive of life. And so our philosophy has regarded the universe as actively hostile to life like our own. He has neglected the religious doctrines of man’s trial, this world according to religion being a house of trial full of afflictions. Our philosopher, however, has regretted the mistake of man’s stumbling into such a universe. How dearly it has to be wished, that the philosopher and the scientist were half as enthusiastic in describing the horrors of atomic war and atomic radiations.

4.         Our philosopher has regarded the appearance of life on earth as accidental. If monkeys strumming unintelligently on typewriters infinitely could accidentally produce a book, why the millions of millions of stars wandering blindly in space for millions of millions of years could not meet with every kind of  accident including a kind which calls planetary system into being, and is fit for producing  life. How our philosopher has come to such a conclusion is known only to himself, for, science has hitherto made no discovery in the light of which the accidental nature of the appearance of life could be confirmed. No, but perhaps it is by the force of habit that our philosopher has hit upon a conclusion which at once carries away with it  the entire galaxy of the religious doctrines, design, purpose, trial, divine government of the world, purpose, trial divine government of the world, resurrection, judgement and life in heaven, and is a reflection of the fortuitous concourse of atoms.

            Our philosopher has spoken against the evidence of science, after science has shown that atoms are arranged in a living cell in a particular manner and according to a fixed design. Yet our philosopher has suspected, that it is in a blind play of chance that the atoms might have found themselves arranged in a manner in which they are arranged in a living cell. Here the old idea of the fortuitous concourse of atoms evidently appears at play.

5.         The only point in which our philosopher has differed from the views of ancient atomism is that of the destructibility of the universe and has anticipated the end of life through either heat-death or some celestial collision or cataclysm. But here too he has regarded the event as final. Nothing of the resurrection is said or alluded to. In fact science could give no guidance in this matter. Yet it is fundamental doctrine of religion.

6.         As far as the question of the purpose of man’s existence is concerned, our philosopher has experienced nothing but increased bewilderment. How it is wished that Sir James Jeans had after writing his “The Mysterious Universe” in 1930, written a “ A manifest Threat to the Mysterious Universe”, in 1945, alluding to the atomic threat. What a picture would Sir James Jeans have drawn of this most burning topic due to his great ability and particular talent.

7.         As far as the Quran is concerned, it will be seen to stand in direct opposition to these philosophic views of our philosopher. It denies accidental nature of creation and asserts a complete design and full control of the Creator, and ascribes a particular purpose to man’s existence, and teaches resurrection, and assigns a special place to earth in creation, and declares man as a creature that maintains a place of special interest in the sight of the Creator of this creation.

SECTION-(iii)

THE TWELVE PAGES REVIEWED IN THE LIGHT OF DOCTRINAL IMPLICATIONS OF ANCIENT ATOMISM

                  We will here show the apparent link between the doctrinal implications of the ancient atomism and the philosophy produced in these twelve pages. We will quote the twelve pages and observe that, firstly, life has been proved as unworthy of special interest of the Creator because of its comparative material insignificance, and secondly, the creation of earth and life has been given out as of accidental nature without any evidence, and thirdly nothing but bewilderment has been confessed in respect of the purpose of man’s existence, without any effort, and fourthly the end of this life has been regarded as final without so much as a mention of resurrection or the life in heaven. The limitations of science, however, have been clearly exposed.

            Any one who has read about the doctrinal implications of ancient atomism, will at once observe that just as the ancient atomism by the dint of its doctrine of the fortuitous concourse of atoms had negated the design, plan, purpose, divine government and consequently the doctrine of resurrection and the life in the other world, this our philosopher in these twelve pages has followed the same line, for, by declaring the creation of earth and life as accidental, and by assessing the life as unworthy of creator’s special interest, and by confessing bewilderment only in the case of the purpose of man's existence, and by declaring the end of life on earth as final without in any way the mention of resurrection or the life in heaven, he has negated the design, plan, purpose, divine government, resurrection and all to prove the existence of the link between the mind of the ancient atomism and that of this present modern atomism.

            Life too insignificant to be worthy of Creator’s special interest:-

            The insignificance of earth in comparison to the total substance of the universe, and the meagreness of life against the total activity in the universe has been given to show that life could not be worthy of a special interest of the grand architect of the universe .Read:-

            We have arranged the passages of 12 pages in a manner so as to produce every individual topic in its separate continuity.

(a)        "A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth, but the majority are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare. Here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths. And the total number of stars in the Universe is probably something like the total number of the grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. Such is the littleness of our home in space, when measured up against the total substance of the Universe.

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 1)

(b)        “Millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with every kind of accident; a limited number are bound to meet with the special kind of accident which calls planetary systems into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky; planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space. This rarity of planetary systems is important, because so far as we can see, life of the kind we know on earth could only originate on planets like the earth. It needs suitable physical conditions for its appearance, the most important of which is a temperature at which substances can exist in the liquid state".

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

(c)        "The stars themselves are disqualified by being far too hot. We may think of them as a vast collection of fires scattered throughout space, providing warmth in a climate which is at most some four degrees above absolute zero--- about 484 degrees of frost on our Fahrenheit scale -- and is, even lower in the vast stretches of space which lie out beyond the Milky Way. Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is a temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquid boil.

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

(d)        "Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen; inside, it would be shrivelled up. At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of space. And even inside them, life must be of very rare occurrence for it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our own sun has done, that probably only about one star in 100,000 has a planet revolving around it in the small zone in which life is possible".

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

(e)        “Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe can have been designed primarily to produce life like our own; had it been so, surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product. At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by-product; we living things are somehow off the main line".

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 5)

(f)         "If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds, there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity----------- indeed more likely, since to all appearances physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe".

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 9)

            "The Creation of earth and the appearance of the life only accidental:-

2.         All the force is spent to prove the creation of earth and life as of a nature only accidental. The implications of such a view evidently are a denial of design, purpose, divine government, and consequently the resurrection and the life in heaven to show clearly the link extant between the mind of the ancient atomism and the modern atomism. Read the Mysterious Universe:-

(a)        "This vast multitude of stars are wandering about in space. A few form groups which journey in company, but the majority are solitary travellers. And they travel through a universe so spacious, that it is an event of almost unimaginable rarity for a star to come anywhere near to another star. For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation, like a ship on an empty ocean. In a scale model in which the stars are ships, the average ship will be well over a million miles from its nearest neighbour, whence it is easy to understand why a ship seldom finds another within hailing distance".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 1)

(b)        "We believe, nevertheless, that some two thousand million years ago this rare event took place and that a second star, wandering blindly through space happened to come within hailing distance of the sun. Just as the sun and the moon raise tides on the earth; so this second star must have raised tides on the surface of the sun. But they would be very different from the puny tides which the small mass of the moon raises in our oceans; a huge tidal wave must have travelled over the surface of the sun, ultimately forming a mountain of prodigious height, which would rise ever higher and higher as the cause of the disturbance came nearer and nearer. And, before the second star began to recede its tidal pull had become so powerful that this mountain was torn to pieces and threw off small fragments of itself, much as the crest of a wave throws off spray. These small fragments have been circulating around their parent sun ever since. These are the planets great and small of which our earth is one".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 1-2)

(c)        "Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident. The use of such a word need not imply any surprise that our earth exists, for accident will happen, and if the universe goes on for long enough every conceivable accident is likely to happen in time. It was, I think, Huxley who said that six monkeys set to strum unintelligently on typewriters for millions of millions of years, would be bound in time to write all the books in British Museum. If we examined the last page which a particular monkey had typed and found that it had chanced in its blind strumming, to type a Shakespeare Sonnet, we should rightly regard the occurrence as a remarkable accident, but if we looked through all the millions of pages which the monkeys had turned off in untold millions of years, we might be sure of finding a Shakespeare Sonnet somewhere amongst them, the product of blind play of chance. In the same way, millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with that special kind of accident which calls planetary system into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky; planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 3-4)

The Philosopher says:-

"Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident”.

The Quran says :-

  “I made them not to witness the creation of heavens and the earth, nor their own creation; nor choose I misleaders for my helpers”.

                                      (Quran 18 X51)

(d)        "We do not know whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural, and indeed  inevitable, that life should come. Another holds that after one accident had brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life. The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms -- carbon such as we find in soot or lamp-black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water; nitrogen, such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on. Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the new-born earth. At intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell. Indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? Or, to put it in another way, could a sufficiently skilful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of "Meccano" and then make it go? We do not know the answer, when it comes it will give us some indication whether other worlds in space are inhabited like ours, and so must have the greatest influence on or interpretation of the meaning of life --- it may well produce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo's Astronomy or Darwin's Biology".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 5-6)

And what after all was the revolution brought about by Galileo’s astronomy other than a tospsyturvification of the universe is man’s mind, and the topsyturvification of man’s mind in the universe, both in incessant rotation sans peace, sans rest, sans, sans, sans all. And what Darwin’s philosophy has done except dimming the thought of nobility in man’s mind, and as consequence changing this mankind into herds of wisdomized beasts indeed very selfish, inconsiderate, and ungrateful. And now only remains for someone to declare that life being merely the arrangement of atoms in a particular manner, it was possible to create life. That indeed will be the crowning glory and indeed the highest pinnacle of Bacon's philosophy of man’s dominion over nature as man’s right and as man’s purpose. The birth of life will thus be given out as of a nature accidental. God’s thought will be excluded. His religion neglected. That indeed will be a great day but perhaps nearing the end and a painful one, for it is God himself who lays an exclusive claim to the dominion, while man’s claim to dominion irrespective of God’s dominion did envisage the destruction of mankind. The Quran says:-

  “Have they not considered the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and what things Allah hath created, and that it may be that their own term draweth nigh? In what fact after this will they believe?

                                      (Quran 7 x 185)

 This is very good verse of the Quran for the consideration of a humanity nearing the atomic annihilation as a result of their endeavouring to attain dominion over the nature.

(e)        "We do, however, know that while living matter consists of quite ordinary atoms, it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or Molecules.

  Most atoms do not possess this property. The atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen, for instance may combine to form molecules of Hydrogen, (H 2 or H3) of  oxygen or Ozone (O 2 or O3 )  of water  (H2 O), or of Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2O2) but none of these compounds contains more than four atoms. The addition of Nitrogen does not greatly change the situation; the compounds of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen all contain comparatively few atoms. But the further addition of Carbon completely transforms the picture; the atoms of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon combine to form molecules containing hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of atoms. It is of such molecules that living bodies are mainly formed. Until a century ago it was commonly supposed that some "vital force" was necessary to produce these and other substances which entered into the composition of the living body. Then Wholer produced Urea CO (NH2)2 which is a typical animal product, in his laboratory, by the ordinary processes of chemical synthesis, and other constituents of the living body followed in due course. Today one phenomenon after another which was at one time attributed to "vital force" is being traced to the action of the ordinary processes of Physics and Chemistry. Although the problem is still far from solution, it is becoming increasingly likely that what specially distinguishes the matter of living bodies is the presence not of a "vital force" but of the quite common place element Carbon, always in conjunction with other atoms with which it forms exceptionally large molecules".       

 (The Mysterious Universe page 6-7)

(f)                 "If this is so, life exists in the universe only because the Carbon possesses certain exceptional properties. Perhaps Carbon is rather noteworthy chemically as forming a sort of transition between the metals and non-metals, but so far nothing in the physical constitution of the Carbon atom is known to account for its very special capacity for binding other atoms together. The Carbon atom consists of six electrons revolving around the appropriate central nucleus, like six planets revolving around a central sun; it appears to differ from its two nearest neighbours in the table of chemical elements, the atoms of Boron and Nitrogen, only in having one electron more than the former and one electron fewer than the latter. Yet this slight difference must account in the last resort for all the difference between life and absence of life. No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possesses these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn't yet fathomed it". 

(The Mysterious Universe page 7)

(g)                "Other similar cases are known to Chemistry. Magnetic phenomenon appear in a tremendous degree in Iron and in a lesser degree in its neighbours, Nickel and Cobalt. The atoms of these elements have 26, 27 and 28 electrons respectively. The magnetic properties of all other atoms are almost negligible in comparison. Somehow, then, although again, mathematical physics has not yet unravelled how, magnetisms depends on the peculiar properties of the 26, 27 and 28 electron atoms, especially the first, radio-activity provides a third instance, being confined, with insignificant exceptions, to atoms having from 83 to 92 electrons; again we do not know why".

       (The Mysterious Universe page 7-8)

(h)        "Thus Chemistry can only tell us to place life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity. The Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws. As a consequence of these laws, atoms having certain definite numbers of electrons, namely 6, 26 to 28 and 83 to 92, have certain special properties, which show themselves in the phenomena of life, magnetism and Radio-activity respectively. An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws. If some other set of laws had been chosen, other special atoms might have had other special properties associated with them. We cannot say what, but it seems a priori unlikely that either radioactivity or magnetism or life would have figured amongst them. Chemistry suggests that, like magnetism and radioactivity, life may merely be an accidental consequence, of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 8)

(i)         "Again the word "Accidental" may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one special set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this were His way of Creating life? So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except perhaps by the remark, that when a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed. If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 8-9)

They insist so much on accidental, for, this is the only way to exclude God’s religion from the scene.

(j)         "A trivial analogy may exhibit the situation in a clearer light. An un-imaginative sailor accustomed to tying knots might think it would be impossible to cross the ocean if tying knots were impossible. Now the capacity for tying knots is limited to space of three dimensions, no knot can be tied in a space of 1, 2, 4, 5 or any other number of dimensions. From this fact our unimaginative sailor might reason that a beneficent Creator must have had sailors under his special patronage; and have chosen that space should have three dimensions in order that tying knots and crossing the ocean should be possibilities in the universe. He had created----in brief space was of three dimensions, so that there could be sailors. This and the argument outlined above seem to be much on a level, because life as a whole and the tying knots are pretty much on a level in that neither of them forms more than an utterly insignificant fraction of the total activity of the materiel universe".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 9-10)

  We are at a loss to decide where the sailor in question or the philosopher who should produce a philosophy such as this is more unimaginative. What, it may be wondered, our philosopher has there to falsify the sailor’s notion in question, except by calling him an unimaginative, and that indeed by violating the sense of the English word Imagination which means mental faculty forming images of external objects, not present to the sense, and creative faculty of mind. It is this sailor in question that has formed up an imaginative link between the knots he ties and the mind of the Creator of the universe, as against this philosopher who can see nothing beyond the Accident of the accidental nature of earth’s creation, and has nothing but bewilderment in the purpose of man’s existence. Which of these two is more un-imaginative. Damned in one’s sight might appear both the science as it has been shown and the philosophy which has been evolved from it.

(3)        PURPOSE OF MAN’S EXISTENCE:

  "MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE":-

(a)        "The sun and the stars we see in the sky are all intensely hot ---for too hot for life to be able to obtain or retain a footing on them. So also no doubt were the ejected fragments of the sun when they were first thrown off. Gradually they cooled until now they have but little intrinsic heat left, their warmth being derived almost entirely from the Radiation which the sun pours down on them. In course of time, we know not how when or why, one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life. It started in simple organisms whose vital capacities consisted of little beyond reproduction and death. But from these humble beginnings emerged a stream of life which, advancing through ever greater and greater complexity has culminated in beings whose lives are largely centered in their emotions and ambitions, their aesthetic appreciations, and religions in which their highest hopes and noblest aspirations lie enshrined".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 2)

(b)     "Although we cannot speak with any certainty, it seems most likely that humanity came into existence in some such way as this. Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand, we attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe which surrounds our home in space, and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror. We find the universe terrifying because of its fast meaningless distances, terrifying because of its inconceivable long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of our extreme loneliness, and because of the material insignificance of our home in space --- a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world. But above all else we find the universe terrifying, because it appears to be indifferent to life like our own; emotion, ambition and achievement, art and religion all seem equally foreign to its plan. Perhaps indeed we ought to say it appears to be actively hostile to life like our own. For the most part, empty space is so cold that all life in it would be frozen, most of the matter in space is so hot as to make life on it impossible, space is traversed, and astronomical bodies continually bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is probably inimical to, or even destructive of life. Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as the result of what may properly be described as an accident".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 2-3)

(c)        “So much for the surprising manner, in which so far science can at present inform us, we came into being. And our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence or to foresee the destiny which fate has in store for our race”.

              (The Mysterious Universe page 10)

 (4)       THE END OF LIFE:- "MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE" :-

(a)        "Primitive man living in the temperate zone of the earth, must have watched the ice-age, descending on his home with something like terror; each year the glaciers came farther down into other valleys; each winter the sun seemed less able to provide the warmth needed for life. To him as to us the universe must have seemed hostile to life".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 10)

(b)        "We of these later days, living in the narrow temperate zone surrounding our sun and peering into the far future, see an ice-age of a different kind threatening us. Just as Tantalus standing in a lake so deep that he only just escaped drowning, was yet destined to die of thirst, so it is the tragedy of our race that it is probably destined to die of cold, while the greater part of the substance of the universe still remains too hot for life to obtain a footing. The sun, having no extraneous supply of heat, must necessarily emit ever less and less of its life-giving radiation. And as it does so, the temperate zone of space, within which alone life can exist, must close in around it. To remain a possible abode of life, our earth would need to move in ever nearer and nearer to the dying sun. Yet, science tells us that, so far from its moving inwards inexorable dynamical laws are even now driving it, farther away from the sun to the outer cold and darkness. And, so far as we can see, they must continue to do so until life is frozen off the earth, unless indeed some celestial collision or cataclysm intervenes to destroy life even earlier by a more speedy death. This prospective fate is not peculiar to our earth, other suns must die like our own, and any life there may be on other planets must meet the same inglorious end".

  (The Mysterious Universe page 10-11)

(c)        "Physics tells the same story, as Astronomy, for independently of all astronomical considerations the general physical principle known as the second law of thermodynamics predicts that there can be but one end, to the universe-------- a "Heat Death" in which the total energy of the universe is uniformly distributed, and all the substance of the universe is at the same temperature. This temperature is going to be so low as to make life impossible. It matters little by what particular road this final state is reached; all roads lead to Rome, and the end of the journey cannot be other than universal death".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 11)      

(d)        "Is this, then, all that life amounts to --- to stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life, and which, to all appearance, is either totally indifferent or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging onto a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration, and that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been?"

  (The Mysterious Universe page 11-12)

(e)        "Astronomy suggests the question, but it is, I think, mainly to physics that we must turn for an answer. For Astronomy can tell us of the present arrangement of the universe, of the vastness and vacuity of space, and of our own insignificance therein, it can even tell us some thing as to the nature of the changes produced by the passage of time. But we must probe deep into the fundamental nature of things before we can expect to find the answer to our question. And this is not the province of Astronomy, rather we shall find that our quest takes us right into the heart of modern physical science".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 12)

 (5)       OUR SUMMARY AND REVIEW OF THE TWELVE PAGES.

(I)        What is known:-

(a)        The sky is of too vast an extent.

(b)        The distances between the stars are very great.

(c)        Stars being balls of fire are disqualified for life due to their intense heat.

(d)        Planetary systems are rarer.

(e)        Suitable physical conditions are necessary for the appearance of life.

(f)         Life of the kind we know can exist under suitable physical conditions of light and heat.

(g)        Life exists because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun. Upsetting this balance meant the disappearance of life from earth.

(h)        The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms.

(i)         Living body consists of quite ordinary atoms, but it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or “Molecules”.

(j)         The presence of life on earth may be attributed to carbon atom for its special property of binding other atoms together.

(k)        Chemistry places life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity.

(l)         Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws.

(m)       The Creator of the universe is Omnipotent.

(n)        Physics plays incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology.

(o)               The end of life on earth will be through “Heat-death”.

(II)              WHAT IS NOT KNOWN:-

(a)         It is not known, how when or why the earth gave birth to life.

(b) It is not known whether suitable physical conditions are   sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that when one accident had brought the earth into being, another was necessary to produce life.

(c)        The reason why the six electron atom (Carbon) possesses the remarkable property that of binding other atoms together has not yet been fathomed by the mathematical physics. Nor has the mathematical physics as yet unravelled how magnetism depended on the peculiar properties, of the 26, 27 or 28 electron atoms. The same may be said of Radio-activity. This is a kind of a reason which resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature.

(d)         Whether the Creator of this universe is a magnified

man-like being, or whether He is free from every anthropomorphic trace has not been decided.

(III)     WHAT IS GUESSED:

 (a)       The creation of earth as a result of the eruption of the surface of the sun caused by the tidal pull of a star wandering blindly through space and approaching the sun.

(b)         Accidental nature of the appearance of life on earth.

(c)          Idea that the universe could not have been designed primarily to produce life, since extreme variance appeared between the magnitude of the mechanism (the universe) and the amount of product  ( that is life)

AUTHOR'S REMARKS

Thanks to the unique ingenuity of Sir James jeans, that after a careful perusal of these twelve wonder pages, the universe settles before our eye to a clear, transparent, bubble universe. Therein I have noticed the term Accidental used in connection with natural phenomena; e.g, the creation of earth or the appearance of life on earth. I have strained my eyes indeed very hard in the realm of natural phenomena, yet have failed to descry the least trace of a possibility of accident in the zone of natural phenomena. The name of the accidental phenomenon does not simply exist in the long list of the natural phenomena. Set rules, set processes, inexorable and infailing, prefixed and pre-determined is the unalterable rule in the world of the laws that govern this universe. Both the factors, namely, the loss of control and the faulty system or substance which characterize the phenomenon of accident are absent in the province of natural phenomena. The term accident or accidental thus is a misnomer in any discussion connected with the functioning of the natural phenomena. The process as a result of which the earth came into being, or life on it appeared, could not have been called as accident or accidental.

It is indeed difficult to understand why scientific describer of the scientific facts should choose such unhappy term as accidental while describing the function of natural phenomena, and so should appear to insist on the use of such a word, while he could easily have avoided it: and he has used the word no doubt in contradiction to the rules of science, for, he used this word without a scientific proof to support the view. The reason simply is the inherent influence of the atheistic aspect of the philosophy of ancient atomism in the mind of our philosopher. The influence may also be traced to the traditional science-religion conflict which has always been there despite all the universal, constant and emphatic assertions to the contrary. And thus unfortunately but quite naturally a clear link between the atheistic doctrinal implications of the ancient atomism and the present state of modern atomism may be observed as established in colours that are quite vivid. The logical and scientific consequence of atomism may also be seen as the atomic hell now fast approaching with a deafening din and a maddening clamour. Inexorable sequence of inexorable laws. The end of the journey of atomism cannot be other than the atomic hell of atomic bombs and atomic radiations.

           SECTION (IV)

DOCTRINAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY OF ANCIENT GREEK ATOMISM.

Lucippus the originator, and Democritus the developer and introducer of the atomic theory were both atheists. Its odious association with the name of these founders of atomism offered a great set-back to the theory. Apart from the atheism of its founders, the theory is in fact the mother of atheism. It implies negation of design, plan, purpose, resurrection, judgment, trial, and divine government of the world. Its atheistic nature was not unknown to the people of those times in which it was advanced. The sect of Epicureans adopted this theory purely and purposely for its atheistic aspect. Plato, Aristotle and all the great contemporary thinkers of Greece opposed and condemned such a theory. Their influence being considerable, their opposition proved to be an effective check on atomism. Yet it was reserved for a scripture namely the Quran to describe the modern atomism and to give it out as the cause, and to infer from it the appearance of atomic hell that is the atomic bombs and atomic radiations, describing the characteristics of atomic phenomenon, and warning the mankind against such a danger at a time that is  in 7th century A.D. when neither a trace of ancient atomism existed in the world, nor there was any apparent possibility of its revival in the world in any successive age.

The views of early Greek atomism were:-

            “Atoms move about in all directions in a fortuitous concourse in an otherwise empty space”. This notion implies a negation of design, divine Government of the world, purpose of creation, trial of man on earth. These negations further imply the negation of the necessity of resurrection, judgment and life in heaven.

*     “Atoms are indivisible and indestructible”. This view implies the eternity of this materiel universe, and hence excludes any possibility of resurrection.

*     “The motions of atoms persists until checked presumably in collision with another atom since the theory denies any other cause". This again appears to be an attempt to refute the idea of divine agency, since Aristotle's view was that the hand of divine power was necessary to push the things to keep them in motion.

*     “Atoms and space are all that exists ". This is a denial of the existence of any spiritual or divine agency in the creation.

*       “The things we touch and see are made by the arrangement of atoms in groups”. Scientifically this view indeed bears some truth. But the philosophic intent behind it appears to be of the negation of any spiritual or divine controlling agency. The arrangement of atoms that move in a fortuitous concourse without any design or control has to be taken as accidental which implies a negation of any designing or controlling authority.

        “There are different kinds of atoms, distinguished by difference of shapes, but individual atoms are too small to be noticed by the sense”.

This view is scientific

 


and is correct, and may be taken as a beginning of the scientific research of the material universe. But surely a science based exclusively on the purpose of material benefit as the objet of man’s life on earth is liable to end in material explosion.

 

CHAPTER (VI)

THE QURAN VERSUS THE PHILOSOPHY OF "MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE"

SECTION (i)

INTRODUCTION :

PART (ONE)

            The pioneers of modern atomism and intended to adopt atomism with a determination to segregate its atheistic side and to adopt the purely scientific side of the theory and this they thought as possible. But time has

 

 

 exposed their error. The atheistic part of atomism has certainly kept its pace insidiously along with its scientific aspect. We have seen how exclusively materialistic has been Bacon’s philosophy of modern atomism, and how candidly did he throw the moral philosophy into the shade as superfluous, unwanted, even forbidden. The result of all the cleverness of Bacon in moulding his worldly philosophy has justly, rightly, logically and scientifically appeared as a burning, blazing, roaring, and braying atomic hell for the entire mankind, nay even all life on earth.

            In this Chapter we will subject the science, (this modern science) to a scrutiny. We will see how far its votaries have adhered to the philosophic link with the peculiarly antithetical theory of ancient Greek atomism. And we are afraid to maintain that the loyal, philosophic minded votaries of this modern science have continued in the intrinsically implicit and explicit trends of ancient atomism and have not renounced the least traces of the peculiarly atheistic doctrinal tendencies of the 500 B.C. philosophy. And we will also see in the lights of the discoveries of modern science, how far it has succeeded in giving answers to religious problems and the other questions which have haunted the human mind since times immemorial, and on which indeed depended the future of man both in this world and the other world. Science, however, has presented a dismal picture. It has indeed captured some of the material forces of nature to provide some physical comforts to man----though it is ultimately stuck up in atomic force---but as far as the question of ultimate reality is concerned, it is nowhere near to it. But above all else we will bring the Quran into play all the while, and will subject the views of science and the philosophical scientist to its scrutiny and will know its own view regarding the views presented.

            One of our objects in this work as we have said is to find a link between the doctrines of the ancient Greek atomism, and the modern philosophic scientist. For this purpose we have selected a twelve page chapter by the name of “The Dying Sun” contained in the book “The Mysterious Universe” of Sir James Jeans. It is an amazingly master product of a giant intellect, and is superb analysis of a copulated topic by a very keen, very sublime and a very systematic mind, appearing in a compact array, and is a remarkable specimen of penmanship. What greater- honour is to be cherished by a man than a piece of his literary work be selected as an exhibit for the scrutiny of not less a divine scripture than the Quran itself. But the piece did deserve such a unique honour. Sir Jeans has in his book exposed the true picture of science as at present it appears, and has assessed its limits and limitations in providing answers to man’s philosophical question. The picture no doubt is dismal yet it is for a scientist of the calibre of Sir Jeans himself to undertake such a study and then to do justice to it. The "Mysterious Universe" of Sir Jams Jeans was published in 1930, but it is a matter of regret that no James Jeans arose after 1945, that is the year in which science appeared with its real, frightful countenance, in Hiroshima.

            These twelve pages of "Mysterious Universe" contain a compact world of knowledge as will be seen in this work. But more wonderful it is, that the Quran should meet the science and the philosophy contained therein, point by point, from the beginning to the end of condemning and attesting the facts in the manner of a dialogue, and in a way as if the Quran anticipated the thought, even language of Sir Jeans. This again appears as a miracle of the Quran, and as a means of depicting the difference between the divine and human intelligence. Sir James jeans has in these twelve pages tried to show how far the modern science as seen in the light of its discoveries could answer the general problems of philosophy and doctrines of religion, such as, the creation, its purpose, man’s purpose in it, its end, and thereafter. The brief Foreword of Sir Jeans to his “The Mysterious Universe” will make the point clearer. He wrote:-

            “There is widespread conviction that the new teachings of astronomy and physical science are destined to produce an immense change on our outlook on the universe as a whole, and on our views as to the significance, of human life. The question at issue is ultimately one for philosophic discussion but before the philosophers have a right to speak, science ought first to be asked to tell all she can as to ascertained facts and provisional hypotheses. Then and then only, may discussion legitimately pass into the realms of philosophy".

And:-

            "With some such thoughts as these in my mind, I wrote the present book, obsessed by frequent doubts as to whether it could justify an addition to the great amount which has already been written on the subject. I can claim no special qualifications beyond the proverbially advantageous position of the mere onlooker; I am not a philosopher either by training or inclination, and for many years my scientific work has lain outside the area of contending physical theories".

And:-

            "The first four chapters which form the main part of the book contain brief discussions, on very broad lines, of such scientific questions as seem to be of interest, and to provide useful material, for the discussion of the ultimate philosophical problem. As far as possible, I have avoided over-lapping my former book" The Universe around us” because I hope the present book, may be read as equal to that. But an exception has been made in favour of material which is essential to the main argument, so as to make the present book complete in itself".

And:-

            "The last chapter stands on different level. Every one may claim the right to draw his own conclusions from the facts presented by modern science. The chapter merely contains the interpretations which I, a stranger in the realm of philosophical thought, feel inclined to place on the scientific facts and hypotheses discussed in the main part of the book. Many will disagree with it. It was written to that end".

(Foreword to Mysterious Universe-Dorking, 1930-J.H. Jeans)

                        These philosophical views which we have observed in these twelve pages as reminiscent of the doctrinal implications of ancient Greek atheistic atomism, are not the view of a limited coteries of scientists, or a set of distempered philosopher, but rather are the practical views of the entire mankind of today, even of those who never have heard them in their life. Nay even of those who would most vehemently disavow them, for, these are the views that are inherent in the spirit of the prevalent philosophy of Baconian atomism. In time, however, if this age continues, people will own these views openly as their belief. The atomic cataclysm may, however intervene, and cut the Gordian knot.

            Sir James Jeans has in writing a book like “The Mysterious Universe” rendered a great, rather invaluable service to this modern deluded world. He has by exposing the real situation of this modern science unveiled a picture which none but a man of the calibre of Sir James Jeans himself could have been able to do. He certainly has thrown this modern science from the status of a wonder-working Goddess down to a humble hand-maid, of course with her atomic trident held by her. He has exposed her philosophical limitations, and scientific incapabilties with ability and with courage, enough to open the hypnotized eye of mankind to the true reality in a stark naked posture. Sir James Jeans has sadly complained of the possibility of certain passages of his original work having been liable to misunderstanding, misinterpretation, even mis-quotation in various unexpected ways. I am quite unaware from which direction did the criticism issue, though I am not unaware of the endless and extreme subtleties of the subject of philosophy. On my own part I have tried to make myself believe that the philosophical points discussed in the 12 pages were not essentially the convictions of Sir James Jeans or any other particular individual, rather the philosopher has treated the generalities as personified. Even if Sir James Jean had written utterly against religion, what a unique honour it had been for a writer to happen to be the author of a human production deemed fit to serve as an exhibit to the scrutiny of a scripture.

            And a word more. We are going to bring the philosopher of the twelve pages and the Quran face to face. That they discuss the points in the form of a dialogue. The entire course will be found bestrewn with wonders of science, philosophy expression, anticipation and pervasiveness displayed by the Quran to the amazement of the scientist, philosopher and intellectual. The work entirely is the result of my own research, indeed by the Grace of Allah, and has been hitherto unknown to the entire world.

INTRODUCTION

PART (TWO)

QURAN VERSUS THE TWELVE PAGES OF THE “THE MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE”.

            The article of Sir James Jeans that we have discussed in the twelve pages of the “Mysterious Universe” in the previous sections is a masterly representation of a peculiar branch of the philosophy of modern atomism and is a proof of his great fundamental knowledge of modern science. The ensuing dialogue between the philosopher and the Quran, which we will now produce, is a landmark in the history of philosophy, which may justly be regarded as the appearance of the modern philosophy of Baconian atomism in the court on its doomsday at the end of its three and a half century life.

            The usual manner in such a work was to treat the subject point by point, explaining and interpreting the views of both the contestants, and making all along necessary clarifications and drawing inferences and giving resultant opinions till the work came to its end. That indeed would have been a real help to the reader who could have gone through without so much as a pause and made his judgment. I, however, for the better or for the worse have adopted quite a different course.  I have preferred to bring both the contestant face to face in a dialogue without the least interruption from any quarter or in any way, leaving the whole to the understanding of the reader himself. Now this is a test for the Quran, a sort of a test which could not even be thought of. A seventh century religious revelation against a twentieth century scientific and philosophical writing of unique complexity could stand in a dialogue and overlap, outweigh and overwhelm the adversary only through some power that may well be regarded as miraculous, and indeed, the theme is nothing short of a miracle, a miracle undeniable by scientist or a philosopher. This manner that of dialogue, however, has enhanced the interest and wonder, and has revealed a particular feature of the Quran that of the adaptability of expression to any occasion beside an all-embracing comprehensives.

            The theme of the dialogue no doubt is not very easy. It has entailed an acute and comprehensive knowledge of science and philosophy. Humanity in these present times appears to have lost all interest in philosophical tendencies, philosophical cognizance, and philosophical learning. The generality of the quotations of the Quran in the dialogue in question are simple and straight, but there are some which at first glance at least may appear as remote, even haphazard and unconnected to those who are not well-versed in philosophy and science, though these same quotations may prove to be the delight of those who knew. The main point, however, is the understanding of the philosophic intent and purport of the points of the philosopher of the twelve pages for, anyone who will know that, he will confront the least difficulty in understanding the purport of the relative quotation of the Quran. With this apprehension in view I have taken considerable pains in explaining the philosophical intent and purport of the philosophy of the twelve pages in the previous sections. Who has read those sections carefully should find no difficulty in comprehending the purport of the quotations of the Quran in the ensuing dialogue.

            A reader, however,  who finds himself at a loss to know the purport of any quotation of the Quran, let him not lose heart, but let him rather try to know the purport of the relative point of the philosophy of the twelve pages and then try to understand the quotation of the Quran. This provides good exercise to the brain, and a reward of delight similar to that which comes when the problem is solved or a puzzle is cleared. With this advice to the reader, and with a conviction that not one quotation of the Quran in the dialogue is amiss in the least, let us begin the dialogue in the name of the most Benign and merciful Allah.

            So far as the numbering of the quotations of the Quran is concerned, the number of a quotation may be found to refer not merely to the part actually quoted, but it might refer to the entire relative text for further reading to understand the context of the point of reference.

SECTION (ii)

THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE QURAN

AND THE PHILOSOPHER OF THE TWELVE PAGES:-

THE TWELVE PAGES WILL BE REPEATED, AND,

THE QURAN WILL ENTER IN DIALOGUE POINT BY POINT

Section (ii) (a)

            "A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth, but the majority are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare. Here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths. And the total number of stars in the Universe is probably something like the total number of grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. Such is the littleness of our home in space, when measured up against the total substance of the Universe".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 1)

            See how the philosopher forestalls through the apparent smallness and insignificance of earth in comparison to the total material of the universe, the point of the lack of proportion between the universe and its product, that is life, and consequently the improbability of life holding a place of special interest in the eyes of the Creator. All this with a view to falsifying entirely the religious view of the plan, design, divine government, man‘s trial and purpose, and the special place of earth, life and man in the creation of the universe. Mark now the replies of the Quran with these points in view, and in relative appropriateness of its answers.

PHILOSOPHER:-

            "A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth, but the majority are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare. Here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths. And the total number of stars in the Universe is probably something like the total number of grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. Such is the littleness of our home in space, when measured up against the total substance of the Universe".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 1)

PHILOSOPHER:-

            “Such is the littleness of our home in space when measured up against the total substance of the universe”.

QURAN:-

            (a)        “Verily My earth is spacious”. "O, my servants who have believed, verily My earth is spacious; wherefore serve me. Every soul shall taste of death, then unto Us shall ye be returned. Those who believe and do good works, them verily We shall house in lofty dwellings of the garden underneath which rivers flow. There they will dwell secure; how sweet the guerdeon of the toilers, who preserve and put their trust in their Lord”.

                                                            (29 X 56-59)

(b)        “And when they are flung into a narrow space (in the hell) chained together they prey for destruction: Pray not that day for one destruction, but pray for many destructions; say: In that (doom) better or the garden of immortality which is promised unto those who ward off (evil)? It will be their reward and journey's end. Therein abiding (for ever) they have all that they desire. It is for thy Lord a promise that must be fulfilled”.

                                    (25 x 13-16).

And:-

(c)        “ Your Lord is endued with extensive mercy”.

                                                (6 x 147)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(2)        “A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth”.

QURAN:-

“We have adorned the lower heaven with the ornament of the stars”.

                                                (37 x 6-10)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(3)        “But the majority (of the stars) are so large that hundreds of thousands of earths could be packed inside each and leave room to spare”.

QURAN:-

            “Yea ! I swear by the setting of the stars, and it is surely a great oath if ye knew it”.

                                                (56 x 75-76)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(4)        “Here and there we come upon a giant star large enough to contain millions of millions of earths”.

QURAN:-

            “And that (God) is the Lord of Sirus, the greater”.

                                                (53 x 49)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(5)        “And total number of stars in the universe is probably something like the total number of the grains of sand on all the sea shores of the world”.

QURAN:-

(a)        "If the sea were ink to (write) the words of my Lord, verily the sea would fail, before the words of my Lord would fail; although we added further supply”.

                                                (18 x 109)

(b)        “Yet, we have sufficient accountants with us”.

                                                (21 x 47)

SECTION (ii) (b)

            “This vast multitude of stars are wandering about in space. Some form groups and journey in company but the majority are solitary travellers. And they travel in a universe so spacious, that it is an event of almost unimaginable rarity for a star to come anywhere near to another star. For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation, like a ship on an empty ocean. In a scale model in which the stars are ships, the average ship will be well over a million miles from its nearest neighbour, whence it is easy to understand why a ship seldom finds another within hailing distance”.

              (The Mysterious Universe page 1)

            That frequent collisions do not occur among the stars, is due not to any design, plan, or control of the creator, but rather the great distance between the stars is the reason according to the philosopher. By this line of argument the philosopher intends to plead to the point of the parity of planetary systems in which life can possibly appear or exist, as well as to the point of the probability of the accidental nature of the creation of earth and the appearance of life in it. This is as usual as attempt to falsify and negate the relative doctrines of religion, namely, the design, plan, divine control, purpose of the creation of life and man. Mark the trend of Quran’s answers in the light of these points.

PHILOSOPHER:-

            “This vast multitude of stars are wandering about in space. Some form groups and journey in company but the majority are solitary travellers. And they travel in a universe so spacious, that it is an event of almost unimaginable rarity for a star to come anywhere near to another star. For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation, like a ship on an empty ocean. In a scale model in which the stars are ships, the average ship will be well over a million miles from its nearest neighbour, whence it is easy to understand why a ship seldom finds another within hailing distance”.

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 1)

QURAN:-

(a)        “Consider the heavens full of stars and the threatened day”.

                                                            (85 x 1-2)

(b)        “Verily (both) in heavens and earth (are) signs of the (divine power) unto the true believers”.

                                                            (45 x3)

(c)      “Consider whatever is in heaven and on earth: But signs are of no avail, neither preachers, unto people who will not believe”.

                                                            (10 x 101)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(1)        “This vast multitude of stars are wandering about in space”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “God created the sun and the moon and the stars, absolutely subject unto His command”.

                                                                        (7x54)

(b)        “We have created over you seven heavens: and We are not negligent of what We have created”.

                                                                        (23 x17)

(c)        “God is the supreme Lord over His servants, and He is the wise and knowing”.

                                                                        (6 x 18)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(2)        “A few (stars) form groups which journey in company, but the majority are solitary travellers”.

QURAN:-

            “verily I swear by the stars which are retrograde, which move swiftly, and which hide themselves”.

                                                                        (81 x15-16)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(3)        “And they travel through a universe so spacious”.

QURAN:-

            “We have built the heaven with might, and we have given it a vast extent”.

                                                            (51 x 47)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(4)        “That it is an event of almost unimaginable rarity for a star, to come anywhere near to another star. For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation like a ship on an empty ocean”.

QURAN:-

                        ‘It is not expedient that the sun should overtake the moon (in her course); Neither doth the night overstrip the day”.

                                                            (36 x 40) PHILOSOPHER:-

(5)        “For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation like a ship on an empty ocean”.

QURAN:-

            “They float each in an orbit”.

                                                (36 x 40)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(6)        “On a scale model in which stars are ships, the average ship will be well over a million miles from its nearest neighbour”.

QURAN:-

            “Lord of the ascending stairways (whereby) the angels and the spirit ascend unto Him in a day whereof the span is fifty thousand years”.

                                                            (70 x 3-4)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(7)        “For the most part each voyages in splendid isolation like a ship on Empty Ocean. In a scale model in which stars are ships, the average ship will be well over million miles from its nearest neigbhour. Whence it is easy to understand why a ship seldom finds another within hailing distance”.

QURAN:-

            “Do they not look up to heaven above them (and consider) how we have raised it and adorned it, and that (there are) no flaws therein”.

                                                            (50 x 6)

SECTION (II) (c)

            "We believe nevertheless, that some two thousand million years ago this rare event took place and that a second star wandering blindly through space happened to come within hailing distance of the sun. Just as the sun and moon raise tides on the earth, so this second star must have raised tides on the surface of the sun. But they would be very different from the puny tides which the small mass of the moon raises in our oceans; a huge tidal wave must have traveled over the surface of the sun, ultimately forming a mountain of prodigious height, which would rise ever higher and higher as the cause of the disturbance came nearer and nearer. And, before the second star began to recede its tidal pull had become so powerful that this mountain was torn to pieces and threw off small fragments of itself, much as the crest of a wave throws off spray. These small fragments have been circulating around their parent sun ever since. They are the planets great and small of which our earth is one ".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 1-2)

            See how the philosopher exemplifies his view of the accidental nature of the creation of earth and subsequent appearance of life on it by advancing this particular theory of earth’s creation. What has to be known in this respect is the nature of this theory and its scientific validity. It is no more than a hypothesis, a suggestion or a supposition. It is not at all supported by any substantial, scientific proof. And it has to be specially marked that science itself does not accept any hypothesis as a fact, unless supported by a factual, scientific proof. Judge the answers of the Quran and its views in the light of these points, keeping in mind the philosopher’s intrinsic, sinister intent of the falsification of the relative religious doctrines.

PHILOSOPHER:-

            "We believe nevertheless, that some two thousand million years ago this rare event took place and that a second star wandering blindly through space happened to come within hailing distance of the sun. Just as the sun and moon raise tides on the earth, so this second star must have raised tides on the surface of the sun. But they would be very different from the puny tides which the small mass of the moon raises in our oceans; a huge tidal wave must have traveled over the surface of the sun, ultimately forming a mountain of prodigious height, which would rise ever higher and higher as the cause of the disturbance came nearer and nearer. And, before the second star began to recede its tidal pull had become so powerful that this mountain was torn to pieces and threw off small fragments of itself, much as the crest of a wave throws off spray. These small fragments have been circulating around their parent sun ever since. They are the planets great and small of which our earth is one Q1.

                                    (The Mysterious Universe page 1-2)

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Q1 In another connection the Quran has described an instance which bears a striking resemblance with this hypothesis of earth's coming into being. The Quran actually has described the Holy Prophet’s vision of heavens and of angel Gabriel. The words are “One vigorous and he grew clear to view when he was on uppermost horizon. Then he drew nigh and came down, till He was distant two bows length or even nearer, and He revealed unto his servant that which he revealed”. (53 x 1-18) But it cannot be applied to this particular case of the hypothesis of earth creation as is advanced by Sir James Jeans. The instance, though, provides an analogy of absorbing interest to an intelligent reader.

 

 

 

QURAN:-

(a)     “But they have no knowledge therein they follow no other than a bare opinion, and a bare opinion attaineth not anything of truth"2.           (53x28)

 (b)       “Have ye a book, wherein ye read, that ye

are therein promised that which ye shall choose?”3.

 

(68x37-38)

(c)        “Or is the unseen their’s, or do they transcribe the same from the table of God’s decrees?" 4.

                                                            (68 x47)

(d)     “Bring your proof (of what ye state), if ye be truthful" 5.                                   (2x111)

(e)          Disbelieve ye, verily in Him who created the earth in two days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the worlds. He placed

2.         In this instance a hypothesis only is under discussion and not an established truth of science.

(3)               The book only of the established and proved laws of nature is the requisite.

 

therein firm hills rising above it, and blessed it and measured therein its substances in four days, alike for (all) who ask, then turned he to the heaven when it has smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth, Come both of you willing or loth. They said: We come obedient. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and we decked the nether heaven with lamps and rendered it invoilable. That is the measuring of the mighty, the knower. But if they turn away, then say, I warn you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt 6 (which fell of old upon the tribes) of AAD and THAMUD”.         

                                               (41 x9-13)

 

(4)        In this instance the book of laws and principles of nature.

(5)        Science accepts nothing without substantial proof thereof.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

f)         “The heaven and the earth were of one piece, then we parted them and we made every living thing of water                                                                         (21x30-33)

f)SECTION (ii) (d)

f)      "The sun and other stars we see in the sky are all intensely hot ---for too hot for life to be able to obtain or retain a footing on them. So also no doubt were the ejected fragments when they were first thrown off. Gradually they cooled until now they have but little intrinsic heat left, their warmth being derived almost entirely from the Radiation which the sun pours down  on them. In course of time was known not how when or why, one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life. It started in simple organisms whose vital capacities

------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. How very appropriate in response to the Quran’s threat now appears the thunderbolt of the atomic bomb as the logical and scientific consequence of this modern philosophy and science which is at variance with the philosophy of the Quran.

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consisted of little beyond reproduction and death. But from these humble beginnings emerged a stream of life which, advancing through ever greater and greater complexity has culminated in beings whose lives are largely centered in their emotions and ambitions, their aesthetic appreciations, and religions in which their highest hopes and noblest aspirations lie enshrined".

  (The Mysterious Universe page 2)

That the sun and the stars are hot is known, while the hypothesis of the cooling of the thrown fragments of the sun stands on debatable grounds. Mark the outright confession of ignorance on the part of the philosopher regarding the questions, how, when or why of the appearance of life on earth. Indeed science hitherto has told nothing in these matters, nor it appears to be very probable that science, judging from its potentialities, will ever be able to give answers to such questions. The Quran, however, tells its own views about all these points. Mark the difference between the basic behaviour of the science-guided philosopher and the book of religion. The former excludes any thought of God, while the latter sees the hand of God in everything.

PHILOSOPHER:-

            "The sun and the stars we see in the sky are all intensely hot ---for too hot for life to be able to obtain or retain a footing on them. So also no doubt were the ejected fragments when they were first thrown off. Gradually they cooled until now they have but little intrinsic heat left, their warmth being derived almost entirely from the Radiation which the sun pours down on them. In course of time was known not how when or why, one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life. It started in simple organisms whose vital capacities consisted of little beyond reproduction and death. But from these humble beginnings emerged a stream of life which, advancing through ever greater and greater complexity has culminated in beings whose lives are largely centered in their emotions and ambitions, their aesthetic appreciations, and religions in which their highest hopes and noblest aspirations lie enshrined".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 2)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “The sun and the stars we see in the sky are all intensely hot”.

QURAN

            (a)        “The heat of hell is hotter”.

                                                (9x81)

            (b)        “We have built above you seven strong (heavens), and have appointed dazzling lamp" 7 .

                                                (78 x12013)

(c)        “Hath ordained the stars for you, that ye may be directed thereby”.

                                                (6x95-97)

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------

7. The prominent theorists will find in this work, theories, realistic, startling and showing a mind far above human level. And they who mention the heat of the sun and the stars in order to falsify the doctrine of faith may well be alluded to the hotter hell.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Far too hot for life to be able to obtain or retain a footing on them”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Whoso is removed from the fire and is made to enter paradise, he indeed is triumphant”.

                                                            (3x185)

(b)        “And the earth hath He prepared for the living creatures: therein (are various) fruits, and palm trees bearing sheaths of flowers; and grain having chaff and leaves. Which therefore of your's Lord’s favour will ye ungratefully deny”.

                                                            (55 x 10-13)

(c)        “Lo! those who expect not the meeting with Us but desire the life of the world and feel secure therein, and those who are negligent of Our revelations, their home will be the fire because of what they used to earn. Lo! Those who believe and do good works, their Lord guideth them by their faith. Rivers will flow beneath them in the gardens of delight”.

                                                            (10x 7-10)

(d)        “Lo! Herein indeed are portents for people who have sense”.

                                                            (16x12)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “So also no doubt were the ejected fragments of the sun (intensely hot) when they were first thrown off. Gradually they cooled, until now they have but little intrinsic heat left, their warmth being derived almost entirely from the radiation which the sun pours down upon them. In course of time we know not how, when or why one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life”.

QURAN:-

d          “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a record. My Lord neither erreth nor forgetteth”.

                                                            (20x52)

PHILOSOPHER:-

            “We do not know how one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life”.

QURAN:-      

(a)        “Allah createth what He will. If He decreeth a thing, He sayeth unto it only Be! And it is”.

                                                            (3x47)

(b)        “Your creation and your raising (from the dead) are only as (the creation and the raising) of a single soul. Lo! Allah is hearer, knower”.

                                                            (31x28)

(c)        “Are you the harder to create, or is the heaven that He built? He raised the height thereof and ordered it, and He made dark the night thereof, and He brought forth the Morn thereof. And after that he spread the earth and produced there from the water thereof and the pasture thereof.  And He made fast the hills. A provision for you and your cattle”.

                                                            (79x27-33)

(d)        He created you from one being, then from that (being) he made its mate; and He had provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers creation after creation, (by several gradual formations) within three veils of darkness. This is God your lord. His (is) the kingdom, there is no God but He. Why therefore are ye turned aside (from the worship of Him to idolatry?). If ye are thankless, yet Allah is independent of you, though He is not pleased with ingratitude in His servants: But if ye be thankful He will be well-pleased with you”.

                                                (39x6-7)

(e)        “And the earth have we laid out, how gracious was the spreader (thereof) land all thinghs we have created by Pairs, that haply ye may reflect”.

                                                (51x48-49)

(f)         “Sendeth down water from sky in (due) measure, and we revive a dead land therewith. Even so ye be brought forth”.

                                                (43-11)

(g)        “We made every living thing of water”.

                                                (21x30)

(h)        “He it is who created you from dust, then from a drop (of seed), then from a clot, then bringeth you forth as a child, then (ordaineth) that ye attain full strength and after that ye become old men, though some among you die before, and that ye reach an appointed term, that haply ye may understand. He it is who quickeneth and  giveth death, when He ordaineth a thing, He sayeth unto it only, Be! And it is. Hast thou not seen who wrangle concerning the revelations of Allah, How they are turned away? Those who deny the scripture and that wherewith we send our messengers. But they will come to know”.

                                                            (40x67-70)

(i)         “Go through the earth, and see how He originally produceth creatures; afterwards will God, reproduce another production; for God is Al-Mighty”.

                                                (29 x20)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “We do not know when one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life”.

QURAN:-

            “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a record. My Lord neither erreth nor forgetteth”.

                                                (20x52)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “We do not know why one of these cooling fragments gave birth to life”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “God hath not created this but with truth. He explaineth His signs unto people who understand”.

                                                            (10x5)

(b)        “Hath created death and life, that He might prove you, which of you is most righteous in (His) actions: and He is mighty and ready to forgive”.

                                                            (67x2)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Life started in simple organisms whose vital capacities consisted of little beyond reproduction and death”.

QURAN:-

            “He (Allah) bringeth forth the living out of the dead, and He bringeth forth the dead out of the living, and He quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead, and in the like manner shall ye be brought forth from your graves”.

                                                            (Quran 30x 19)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “From these humble beginnings”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “We formerly created man of a finer sort of clay”.

                                                            (23x12-14)

(b)        “We created man of dried clay, of black mud, formed into shape”.

                                                            (15x26-31)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “From these humble beginnings emerged a stream of life which, advancing through ever greater and greater complexity”.

QURAN:-

            “We formerly created man of a finer sort of clay; afterwards we placed him (in the form of) seed in a sure receptacle; afterwards we made the seed coagulated blood; and we formed the flesh. Then we formed the piece of flesh into bones, and we clothed these bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation”.

                                                (23x12-14)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “From these humble beginnings emerged a stream of life which, advancing through ever greater and greater complexity has culminated into beings”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Then He fashioned him (man) and breathed into Him of His sprit, and appointed for you hearing and sight, and heart".

                                                            (32x7-9)

(b)        “And then produced it as another creation”.

                                                            (23x12-14)

PHILOSOPHER:-

 (11)     “From these, humble beginnings emerged a stream of life, which advancing through ever greater and greater complexity has culminated into beings whose lives are largely centred in their emotions, and ambitions, their aesthetic appreciations, and the religions in which their highest hopes and noblest aspirations lie enshrined”.

PHILOSOPHER:-

(12)      “Emotions”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Man is made of haste”.

                                                (21x37)

(b)        “Man is more than anything contentious”.

                                                (18x54)

(c)        “When harm toucheth man they cry unto their Lord, turning to Him in repentance, then, when they have tasted.  His mercy, behold some of them attribute partners to their Lord”.

                                                (30x33)

(d)        ‘Surely man is unjust (and) ungrateful”.

                                                (14x34)

(e)        “And when we cause mankind to taste Mercy they rejoice therein, but if an evil thing befall them as the consequence of their own deeds: Lo! They are in despair”.

                                                (30x36)

(f)    “And We cause him to taste grace after some misfortune had befallen him. He saith; The ills have gone from me. Lo! He is exultant, boastful”.

                                                (11x10)

(g)        “If We cause man to taste some mercy from us, and afterwards withdraw it from him, Lo! He is despairing thankless”.

                                                (11x9)

(h)        “Verily We have created  man in misery”.

                                                (90x4)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(13)      “Ambitions”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Beautified for mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring, and stored up heaps of gold and silver, and horses branded (with their mark), and cattle and land. That is comfort of the life of the world. Allah, with Him is a more excellent abode".

                                                (3x14)

(b)        “Verily we have created man of a most excellent fabric, afterwards We rendered him the vilest of the vile; except those who believe and work righteousness, for they shall receive an endless reward.

                                                (95x4-6)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(14)      “Aesthetic appreciations”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Hath made all things good which He created”.

                                                (32x7-9)

(b)        “And appointed for you hearing and sight, and hearts”.

                                                (32x7-9)

(c)        “Hath formed you and made your forms beautiful, and feedeth you with good things”.

                                                (40x64)

(d)        “Created you, then fashioned you, then told the angels; Fall ye prostrate before Adam! And they fell prostrate all save Iblis, who was not of those who make prostration”.                                         (7x11)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(15)      “Religions in which their highest hopes and noblest aspirations lie enshrined”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Lo in the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His Sovereignty) for men of understanding, such as remember Allah sitting and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth (and say) Our Lord! Thou createdst this not in vain. Glory be to thee, preserve us from the fire. Our Lord whom thou causest to enter the fire; him indeed thou hath confounded. For evil-doers there will be no helpers. Our Lord Lo! We have heard a crier calling unto faith, “Believe ye in your Lord”, So we believed, our Lord therefore forgive us our sins, and remit from us our evil deeds, and make us die the death of the righteous”.

                                                (3x190-194)

(b)        “Their cry was only that they said, our Lord forgive us for our sins and wasted efforts, make our foot-hold sure, and give us victory over disbelieving folk”.

                                                (3x147)

(c)        “Lo! My worship and my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds”.

                                                (6x162)

(d) “It will not be in accordance with your desires nor the desires of the people of the scripture. He who doeth wrong will have the recompense thereof, and will not find against Allah any protecting friend or helper, and whoso doeth good works, whether of male or female, and he or she is a believer, such will enter paradise and they will not be wronged the dint in a date-stone”.

                                                (4x123-125)

SECTION (ii) (e)

            "Although we cannot speak with any certainty, it seems most likely that humanity came into existence in some such way as this. Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand, we attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe which surrounds our home in space, and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror. We find the universe terrifying because of its fast meaningless distances, terrifying because of its inconceivably long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye,  terrifying because of our extreme loneliness, and because of the material insignificance of our home in space --- a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world. But above all else we find the universe terrifying, because it appears to be indifferent to life like our own; emotion, ambition and achievement, art and religion all seem equally foreign to its plan. Perhaps indeed we ought to say it appears to be actually hostile to life like our own. For the most part, empty space is so cold that all life in it would be frozen, most of the matter in space is so hot as to make life on it impossible, space is traversed, and astronomical bodies continually bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is inimical to, or even destructive of life".

                        (The Mysterious Universe page 2-3)

            The discoveries of the great vastness and vacuity of space and the comparative smallness of earth have inspired a feeling something akin to terror in the mind of the philosopher, instead of inspiring a sense of the glory of the creator. The universe has appeared to him not only indifferent to life but even hostile to it. This concept is the result of his belief that this universe could not have been created for life. This is a view which negates the religious doctrine of trial of man on earth, and consequently the purpose of man’s existence therein. The Quran will be seen to allay his fears and expound the doctrine of trial.

PHILOSOPHER:-

            "Although we cannot speak with any certainty, it seems most likely that humanity came into existence in some such way as this. Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand, we attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe which surrounds our home in space, and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror. We find the universe terrifying because of its fast meaningless distances, terrifying because of its conceivable long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of our extreme loneliness, and because of the material insignificance of our home in space --- a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world. But above all else we find the universe terrifying, because it appears to be indifferent to life like our own; emotion, ambition and achievement, art and religion all seem equally foreign to its plan. Perhaps indeed we ought to say it appears to be actually hostile to life like our own. For the most part, empty space is so cold that all life in it would be frozen, most of the matter in space is so hot as to make life on it impossible, space is traversed, and astronomical bodies continually bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is inimical to, or even destructive of life".

            (The Mysterious Universe page 2-3)

PHILOSOPHER”-

d          “Although we cannot speak, with any certainty, it seems most likely that humanity came into existence in some such way as this”.

QURAN:-

            (a)        “They have no knowledge thereof. They follow but a guess, and Lo! a guess can never take the place of the truth. Then withdraw from him who fleeth from our remembrance and desireth but the life of the world. Such is their sum of knowledge. Lo! Thy Lord is best aware of him who strayeth, and He is best aware of him who goeth right”.

                                                (53x28-30)

            (b)        “Proofs have come unto you from your Lord, so whoso seeth, it is for his own good, and whoso is blind is to him own hurt”.

                                                (6-104)

            (c)        “Bring your proof, if ye be truthful”.

                                                (2x111)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand (that is this earth)”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Was not Allah’s earth spacious”.

                                                (4x97)

(b)        “The earth, vast as it is, was straitened for them”.                                                           (9x118)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(3)        “We attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Verily in the heavens we have set mansions of the stars, and we have beautified it for beholders”.

                                                            (15x16)

(b)        “Lo! In the heavens and the earth are portents for believers”.

                                                            (45x3)

(c)        “And for those who strive for us, we surely guide them to our paths”.

                                                            (29x69)

(d)        “Thus We did show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he might be of those possessing certainty, when the night grew dark upon him he beheld a star. He said: This is my Lord. But when it set. He said: I love not things that set. And when he saw the moon uprising, he exclaimed: This is my Lord. But when it set, he said "Unless my Lord guide me, I surely shall become one of the flock who are astray. And when he saw the sun uprising, he cried: This is my Lord. This is greater! And when it set he exclaimed: O, My people! Lo! I am free from all that ye associate (with Him).Lo! I have turned my face toward Him who created the heavens and the earth, as one by nature upright, and I am not of the idolaters”.

                                                (6x75-79)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “We attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe, which surrounds our home in space and time”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Behold, what is in the heavens and the earth, but revelations and warnings avail not folk who will not believe”.

                                                (10x10)

(b)        “We confound their hearts and their eyes. As they believed not therein at the first, we let them wander blindly on in their contumacy”.

                                                (6x110)

(c)        “And even if we opened unto them a gate of heaven and they kept mounting through it. They would say: Our sight is wrong---nay, but we are folk bewitched”.

                                                (15x14-15)

(d)        “Deem not that Allah is unaware of what the wicked do. He but giveth them a respite till a day when eyes will stare (in terror) as they come hurrying on in fear. Their heads upraised, their gaze returning not to them, and their hearts as air8”.

                                                (14x42-43)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Nature of the Universe”.

QURAN:-

“Praise be unto God who, hath created the heavens and the earth, and hath ordained the darkness and the light”.

                                                (6x1)

6          “Purpose of the universe”.

QURAN:-

(a)    “God hath created the heavens and the earth in truth, that He may recompense every soul according to that which it shall have wrought, and they shall not be treated unjustly”.                                                                                          (45x22)

(b)     “It is God who hath raised the heavens without visible pillars; (and) then ascended

-----------------------------------­­­­­-------------------------------

8. The effect of the news of the atomic war would not be different on the people. And that moment may come any moment.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------His throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to perform their services. Every (of the heavenly bodies) runneth as appointed course. He ordereth (all) things.  He showeth (His) signs distinctly, That ye may be assured ye must meet your Lord (at the last day)”.

                                                (13x2)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “We attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe, which surrounds our home in space and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “What fear ye them? Now Allah hath more right that ye should fear Him, if ye be believers”.

                                                            (9x13)

(b)     “Verily true believers (are) those whose hearts fear when God is mentioned, and whose faith increaseth when His signs are rehearsed unto them, and (who) trust in their Lord”.

                                                            (8x2)

(c)        “Revelation from Him who created the earth and the high heavens”.      

                                                            (20x4)

(d)        “The exalter of ranks, and Lord of the thrones”.

                                                            (40x15)

(e)        “Lord of the seven heavens; and Lord of the tremendous throne”.

                                                            (23x86)

(f)         “Unto Him (alone) belongeth majesty in the heavens and the earth and He is the mighty, the Wise”.

                                                            (45x37)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(8)        “We find the universe terrifying because of its vast meaningless distances”.

QURAN:-

(a)        "That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise”.

                                                (36x38)

(b)        “They esteem not Allah as He hath the right to be esteemed, when the whole earth is His handful on the day of resurrection, and heavens are rolled in His right hand. Glorified is He and High exalted from all that they ascribe as partners unto Him”.

                                                            (39x67)

(c)        “Surely I am nigh. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he crieth unto me”.

                                                            (2x186)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “We find the universe terrifying because of its inconceivably long vistas of time, which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Lo! We have created everything by measure. And our commandment is but one (commandment) as the twinkling of an eye”.

                                                            (54x49-50)

(b)        “And the matter of Hour (of doom) is but as a twinkling of the eye, or it is nearer still. Lo! Allah is able to do all things”.

                                                            (16x77)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “We find the universe terrifying because of our extreme loneliness”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “God is with you wheresoever you may be”.

"He (God) it is who created the heavens and the earth in six days; then He mounted the throne. He knoweth all that entereth the earth and all that emergeth there from, and all that cometh down from the sky and all that ascendeth therein; and He is with you wheresoever ye may be”.

                                                            (57x4)

(b)        “We are nearer to him (man) than his jugular vein”.

            “We created man and we know what his soul wispereth to him, and We are nearer to him, than his jugular vein”.

                                                            (50x16)

(c)        “We are your protecting friends in the life of the world and in the hereafter”.

                                                            (41x31)

(d)        “There is no secret conference of three but He (God) is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but he is with them wheresoever they may be; and afterwards on the day of resurrection He will inform them of what they did. Lo! Allah is knower of all things”.

                                                            (58x7)

(e)        “Lo! There are above you Guardians, generous and recording, who know all that you do”.

                                                            (82x10-12)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(11)      “We find the universe terrifying because of the material insignificance of our home in space------ a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Know that this present life (is) only a toy and a vain amusement and (worldly) pomp, and the affectation of Glory among you, and the multiplying of riches and children (are) as the plants nourished by the rain, the springing up thereof delighteth the husbandman, afterwards they wither, so that thou seest the same turn yellow, and at length they become dry subtle. And in the life to come there (will be) a severe punishment (for those who covet-worldly grandeur) ; and pardon from God, and honour (for those who renounce it), for this present life (is) no other than a deceitful provision. Hasten with emulation to (obtain) pardon from your Lord and paradise the extent whereof euqalleth the extent of heaven and earth, prepared for those who believe in God and His apostles. This (is) the bounty of God; He will give the same unto whom He pleaseth, and God is endued with great bounty”.

                                                            (57x20-21)

(b)        “When they (disbelievers) shall be cast bound together (on the Day of Judgment) into a strait place thereof, they shall there cry for death: (But it shall be answered them) call not this day for one death, but call for many deaths. Say: Is this better, or a garden of eternal duration, which is promised unto the pious? It will be their reward and journey’s end”.

                                                            (25x11-15)

(c)        “The day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll. As we began the first creation, We shall repeat it (it is) a promise (binding) on us. Lo! we are to perform it”.

                                                            (21x 104)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(12)      “But above all else we find the universe terrifying because it appears to be indifferent to life like our own. Emotion, ambition and achievement, art and religion all seem equally foreign to its plan”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “See ye not how Allah hath made serviceable unto you whatever is in the skies and whatever is in the earth and hath loaded you with His favours both without and within. Yet of mankind is he who disputeth concerning Allah, without knowledge or guidance or a scripture giving light”.

                                                (31x20)

(b)        “Allah is He who appointed for you earth for a dwelling place and the sky for a canopy. And who hath formed you and made your forms beautiful, and feedeth you with good  things. This (is) God your lord, wherefore blessed be God, the Lord of all creatures. He (is) the living (God), (There is) no God but He”.

                                                (40x64-65)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(13)      “Perhaps indeed we ought to say it (the universe) appears to be actively hostile to life like our own”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “We will surely prove you (by afflicting you) in some measure with fear, and hunger, and decrease of wealth, and (loss) of lives and (scarcity) of fruits: but bear good tidings unto the patient, who when a misfortune befalleth them, say, we are God’s and unto Him shall we surely return. Upon them shall be blessings from their Lord and mercy, and they are the rightly directed”.

                                                            (2x155-157)

(b)        “There will be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a while”.

                                                            (7x24)

(c)        “Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good works, that He will cause them to succeed (the unbelievers in the earth, as He caused those who were before you to succeed the infidels of their times); and that He will establish for them their religion which pleaseth them, and will change their fear into scrutiny:.

                                                            (24x55)

(d)        “And we have appointed hell a dungeon for disbelievers”.

                                                            (17x8).

PHILOSOPHER:-

(14)      “For the most part empty space is so cold that all life in it would be frozen”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Have ye observed the fire which ye strike out. Was it ye who made the tree thereof to grow, or were we the grower? We, even We, appointed its memorial and comfort for the dwellers in the wilderness”.

                                                            (56x71-73)

(b)        “And the cattle hath He created whence you have warm clothing”.

                                                            (16x5)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(15)      “Most of the matter in space is so hot as to make life on it impossible”.

QURAN:-

            “Allah hath given you of that which He hath created, shelter from the sun; and hath given you places of refuge in the mountains, and hath given you coats to warn off the heat from you, and coats (of  amour) to save you from your own fool hardiness. Thus doth He perfect His favour unto you, in order that ye may surrender (unto Him).

                                                            (16x81)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(16)      “Space is traversed”

QURAN:-

(a)        "We made the heaven a roof well supported”.

                                                (21x32)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(17)      “And astronomical bodies continually bombarded, by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is probably inimical to, or even destructive of life”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Who guardeth you in the night or in the day from the beneficent? Nay but they turn away from the mention of their Lord”.

                                                            (21x42).

(b)        “He is Omnipotent over His servants. He sendeth guardians over you, until, when death cometh unto one of you, our messengers receive him, and they neglect not”.

                                                            (6x61)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(18)      “Astronomical bodies are continually bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is probably inimical to, or even destructive of life”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “When Our commandment came, we turned those (cities) upside down, and we raised upon them stones of baked clay, one following another and marked from thy Lord”.

                                                            (11x83)

(b)        “And terrible was the shower (which fell) on those who had been warned in vain”.

                                                            (26x173)

(c)        “And the Jinn (who had listened to the discourse of the Quran) said: We formerly attempted (to pry into what was transacting in) heaven; but we found the same filled with a strong guard (of angels), and with flaming darts; and we sat on (some of the) seats thereof to hear (the discourse of its inhabitants); but whoever listeneth now findeth a flame laid in ambush for him (to guard the celestial confines)”.

                                                            (72x8-9)

SECTION (ii) (f)

            "Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident. The use of such a word need not imply any surprise that our earth exists, for accidents will happen, and if the universe goes on for long enough every conceivable accident is likely to happen in time. It was, I think, Huxley who said that six monkeys set to strum unintelligently on typewriters for millions of millions of years, would be bound in time to write all the books in British Museum. If we examined the last page which a particular monkey had typed and found that it had chanced in its blind strumming, to type a Shakespeare Sonnet, we should rightly regard the occurrence as a remarkable accident, but if we looked through all the millions of pages which the monkeys had turned off in untold millions of years, we might be sure of finding a Shakespeare Sonnet somewhere amongst them, the product of blind play of chance. In the same way, millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with that special kind of accident which calls planetary system into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky; planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space".

              (The Mysterious Universe page 3-4)

            This is evidently the attempt firstly to prove the accidental nature of earth’s creation, and secondly to prove the rarity of the planetary systems in which life is possible. As far as the first is concerned, the science could not be so much as mentioned, while in the second the science could merely be alluded to. But the basic intent and trend should be our consideration. Both these points are raised to falsify the relative religious doctrines regarding these points. View the answers regarding these points. View the answers of the Quran in essential reference to these facts.

PHILOSOPHER:-

            "Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident. The use of such a word need not imply any surprise that our earth exists, for accident will happen, and if the universe goes on for long enough every conceivable accident is likely to happen in time. It was, I think, Huxley who said that six monkeys set to strum unintelligently on typewriters for millions of millions of years, would be bound in time to write all the books in British Museum. If we examined the last page which a particular monkey had typed and found that it had chanced in its blind strumming, to type a Shakespeare Sonnet, we should rightly regard the occurrence as a remarkable accident, but if we looked through all the millions of pages which the monkeys had turned off in untold millions of years, we might be sure of finding a Shakespeare Sonnet somewhere amongst them, the product of blind play of chance. In the same way, millions of millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of millions of years are bound to meet with that special kind of accident which calls planetary system into being. Yet calculation shows that the number of these can at most be very small in comparison with the total number of stars in the sky; planetary systems must be exceedingly rare objects in space".

                        (The Mysterious universe page 3-4)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Into such a universe we have stumbled if not exactly by mistake”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Avert death from yourselves, if ye are truthful”.

                                                (3x168)

(b)        “Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And man assumed it. Lo! He hath proved a tyrant and a fool”.

                                                (33x72)

(c)        “Thy Lord bringeth to pass what He willeth and chooseth. They have never any choice. Glorified be Allah and exalted above all that they associate (with Him)”.

                                                (28x68)

(d)        “It is He who formeth you in the wombs as He pleaseth”.

                                                            (3x6)

(e)        “I made them not to witness the creation of heavens and the earth, nor their own creation, nor choose I misleaders for My helpers”.

                                                (18x 51)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Into such a universe we have stumbled if not exactly by mistake, at least as the result of what may properly be described as an accident”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Allah affaceth what He will, and establisheth (what He will),  and with Him is the source of ordinance”.

                                                            (13x39)

(b)        “Verily Allah sustaineth the heavens and the earth, lest they fail, and if they should fail, none could support the same besides, Him”.

                                                            (35x41)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “Blind play of chance”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Not a leaf falleth but He knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness or the earth, naught of wet or dry but (it is noted, in a clear record)”.

                                                            (6x59)

(b)        “Thy Lord taketh note of all things”.

                                                            (34x21)

(c)        “Allah ever surroundeth all things”.

                                                            (4x126)

(d)        “And thy Lord was never forgetful”.

                                                            (19x64)

(e)        “And we are never unmindful of our creation”.

                                                            (23x17)

(f)         “He (Allah) ordereth the course”.

                                                            (13x2)

PHILOSOPHER:-

d          “If the universe goes on for long enough”.

QURAN:-

(a)     “The knowledge thereof (is) with God alone; and He will not inform thee, peradventure the hour is nigh (at hand)”.

                                                            (33x63)

(b)        “God hath not created the heaven and the earth, and whatever (is) between them, otherwise than in truth, and hath set them a determined period”.

                                                            (30x8)

(c)        “Allah hath set a measure for all things”.

                                                            (65x3)

PHILOSOPHER:-

(5)        “The strumming monkeys”.

QURAN:-

(a)        “Lo! the worst of beasts in Allah’s sight are the ungrateful who will not believe”.

                                                            (8 x55)

(b)        “Lo! The worst of beasts in Allah's sight are the deaf, the dumb who have no sense”.

                                                            (8x22)

(c)        “Many of the genii and mankind, having hearts wherewith they understand not and having eyes wherewith they see not, and having ears wherewith they hear not. These are as the cattle nay, but they are worse! These are the neglectful”.

                                                            (7x179)

(d)        “Indeed it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts, which are within the bosoms”.

                                                            (22x46)

 

Section (ii) (g)

            "This rarity of planetary systems is important, because so far as we can see, life of the kind we know it needs suitable physical conditions for its appearance, the most important of which is a temperature at which substances can exist in the liquid state".

            (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

            This rarity of the planetary systems is important to the philosopher solely because it is in line with his view of the comparative insignificance of earth and subsequently the life on it. The fact, however, that life could exist only on the planets like earth due to the conditional suitability of such a planet for the appearance of life, no doubt efforts a great set-back to the views of the philosopher. The Quran may be seen to confirm the point of suitable physical conditions in reference to this earth. Yet the point here is that religion assigns exception significance to the life on earth and assigns a central place to earth as the object of special interest of the creator of the universe whatever be the place or position of the earth materially and comparatively in the universe. The modern scientist from the beginning has shown an endeavour to falsify this point and-prove this earth and life on n it as worthless and undeserving of the honured place that is assigned to it by the religion. He looks at the earth in comparison to the universe materially only, whereas religion materially only, whereas religion looks at this life in comparison to the next life spiritually and depreciates it comparatively

PHILO:-

"This rarity of planetary systems is important, because so far as we can see, life of the kind we know it needs suitable physical conditions for its appearance, the most important of which is a temperature at which substances can exist in the liquid state".

            (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

PHILO:-

(1)        "Life of the kind we know could only originate on the planets like earth".

QURAN

(a)        "By the earth which splitteth (with the growth of trees and planets".

            (86 x12).

(b)        "And the earth hath He prepared for living creatures, therein (are various) fruits and palm trees bearing sheaths of flowers; and grain having chaff and leaves".           (Quran 55x10-12)

(c)        "Have not those disbelievers known that the heaven and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water". (Quran 21x30)

PHILO:-

(2)        "Life of the kind we know on earth could only originate on planets like earth. It needs suitable physical conditions for its appearance".

QURAN

"Have we not made the earth for a bed, and the mountains for stakes. And have we not created you of two sexes and appointed your sleep for rest, and the night a garment (to cover you); and destined the day to the gaining (your) livelihood, and built over you seven solid (heavens); and placed (therein) a burning lamp? And do we not send down from the (clouds) pressing forth rain, water pouring down in abundance, that we may thereby produce corn, and herbs, and gardens planted thick (with trees)? Verily the day of separation is a fixed period, the day wherein the trumpet shall sound, and ye shall come in troops( to judgment); and the heaven shall be opened, and shall be (full of gates, and the mount as shall pass away, and become as a vapour; verily hell shall be a place of ambush, a receptacle for the transgressors who shall remain therein for ages, they shall not taste any refreshment therein, or any drink, except boiling water, and filthy corruption; a if recompense (for their deeds); For they hoped that they should not be brought to an account, and they disbelieved our signs, accusing them o falsehood. But everything have we competed, and written down. Taste therefore: We will not add unto you (any other) than torment. But for the pious (is prepared) a place of bliss: Gardens planted with trees, and vine yards".

            (78x6-36)

PHILO"-

(3)        "The most important of these physical conditions is a temperature at which substances can exist in the liquid state".

QURAN

(a)        " Have appointed a dazzling lamp (sun)". (78x13)

(b)        "And We made every living thing of water".

            (21x30)

(c)        "Allah hath created every animal of water. Of them is (a kind) that goeth upon its belly, and a (kind) that goeth upon its belly, and (a kind) that goeth upon its legs, and (a kind) that goeth upon four. Allah createth what at He will. Lo! Allah is able to do all things". (24x45)

(d)        "Who hath made all things good which He hath created, and he began the creation of man from clay, then He made hissed from an extract of despicable water, and then formed him( into proper shape), and breathed of His spirit into him , and hath given you (the senses of ) Hearing and seeing, and hearts to understand. How small thanks ye return".

            (32x7-9)

(e)        "He it is who sendeth down water from the sky, and therewith We bring forth buds of every kind; We bring forth the green blade from which We bring forth the thick-clustered grain, and from the date-palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant branches; and (we bring forth) gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, alike and unlike, look upon the fruit thereof, when they bear fruit, and upon its reaping. Lo! Herein verily are portents for a people who believe". (6x99)

SECTION (ii) (h)

PHILO

“The stars themselves are disqualified by being too hot. We may think of them as a vast collection of fires scattered throughout space, providing warmth in a climate which is at most some four degrees above absolute zero--- about 484 degrees of frost on our Fahrenheit scale -- and is, even lower in the vast stretches of space which lie out beyond the Milky Way. Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is at temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquid boil.

  (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

            This obviously is an attempt in line with the philosopher's view of the material insignificance of life, to prove the error of the relative religious doctrines. Read the answers of the Quran keeping in mind as usual the actual intent of the philosopher beneath his apparent argument.

            The stars themselves are disqualified by being too hot. We may think of them as a vast collection of fires scattered throughout space, providing warmth in a climate which is at most some four degrees above absolute zero--- about 484 degrees of frost on our Fahrenheit scale -- and is, even lower in the vast stretches of space which lie out beyond the Milky Way. Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is at temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquid boil.

  (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

QURAN

(a)        "Allah is He who hath set for you the stars that ye may guide your course by them amidst the darkness of the land and the sea. We have detailed our revelations for a people who have knowledge".

  (Quran 6x97)

(b)        "We have adorned the lower heaven with the ornament of the stars".

  (37x6)

PHILO:-

            "Away from the fires there is this unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost; close up to them there is at temperature of thousands of degrees, at which all solids melt, all liquid boil.

  (The Mysterious Universe page 4)

QURAN:-

            "Reclining therein (in the Paradise) upon couches, they (the righteous) will find there neither (heart of) a sun nor bitter cold".

  (Quran 76x13)

SECTION (ii) (i)

            Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen; inside, it would be shriveled up. At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of space. And even inside them, life must be of very rare occurrence for it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our won sun has done. That probably only about one star in 100,000 has a planet revolving round it in the small zone in which life is possible.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

That is the continuance of the argument regarding the comparative material insignificance of earth and life. Judge therefore that a one, trend ad the nature of the answer of the Quran keeping in mind the actual internal intent of the philosopher, which actually is the falsification of the religious doctrines of plan, design, divine government, trial, purpose and resurrection.

PHILO:

 

"Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen; inside, it would be shriveled up. At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of space. And even inside them, life must be of very rare occurrence for it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our won sun has done. That probably only about one star in 100,000 has a planet revolving round it in the small zone in which life is possible”.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

PHILO:-

(1)        "Life can only exist inside a narrow temperate zone which surrounds each of these fires at a very definite distance. Outside these zones life would be frozen, inside it would be shriveled up".

QURAN

(a)        "The disposition of the Mighty, the Wise God".

  (36x38)

(b)        " He propondeth unto us a comparison and has forgotten the fact of his creation".

  (36x78)

PHILO:-

(2)        "At a rough computation, these zones within which life is possible, all added together, constitute less than a thousand million millionth part of the whole of space".

QURAN

(a)        "Allah encomapaseth them (by His knowledge and power), and numbereth them with (an exact) computation".

  (19x94)

(b)        "He is the most quick in taking on account".

  (6x62)

PHILO

(3)        And even inside them, life must be of very rare occurrence for it is so unusual an accident for suns to throw off planets as our won sun has done. That probably only about one star in 100,000 has a planet revolving round it in the small zone in which life is possible".

QURAN

"And He (Allah) creathe that which ye know not".

  (16x8)

SECTION (ii) (j)

PHILO

 

"Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe, can have been designed primarily to produce life like our won; had been so surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product. At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by - product; we living things are somehow off the main line.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

And now at last the philosopher is out with his intent. The argument which he so long sustained with such cleverness at last culminates in the improbability of this universe having been created for life because of apparent, material lack of proportion between the mechanism and the product. But read and wonder to see with what appropriateness the Quran deals with him.

PHILO

"Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe, can have been designed primarily to produce life like our won; had been so surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product. At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by - product; we living things are somehow off the main line.

(The Mysterious Universe page 4-5)

PHILO

(1)        ""Just for this reason it seems incredible that the universe, can have been designed primarily to produce life like our won; had been so surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product.

QURAN

(a)        "Thou canst not see in the creation of the most Merciful any unfitness or disproportion".

  (67x3)

(b)        "Lord of seven heavens, and the Lord of the magnificent thrones".

  (23x86)

(c)        "Hath created everything and hath meted out for it a measure".

  (54x49)

(d)        "Have created everything by measure".

  (54x49).

(e)        "Hath appointed the balance".

  (55-7)

(f)         "Hasten with emulation and to (obtain) pardon form your Lord, and paradise, the extent whereof equalleth the extent of heaven and earth (Universe)".

  (57x21)

PHILO

(2)        "It seems incredible that the universe can have been designed to produce life like our own".

QURAN

"Is not He who hath created the heavens and the earth, able to create creatures like unto them? Yes, certainly: for He is the all-wise creator".

  (36x81)

PHILO

(3)        "At first glance at least, life seems to be an utterly unimportant by-products".

            "At first glance at least"

QURAN

(a)        "Repeat the gaze; seest thou a single flaw? Then twice more repeat the gaze; Thy gaze shall return to thee dulled and weary".

  (67x3-4)

(b)        "Thou canst see no flaw in the beneficent one's creation".

  (67-3)

(c)        "Blessed be He in whose hand is the kingdom! and over all things is He potent" who hath created death and life to prove which of you will be most righteous in deed; and He is the mighty, the forgiving! Who hath created seven heavens one above the other; no defect canst thou see in the creation of the God of Mercy: Repeat the gaze: Seest thou a single flaw? Then twice more repeat the gaze: Thy gaze shall return to thee dulled and weary. Moreover we have decked the lowest heaven with lights, and have placed them (there) to be hurled at the satans, for whom We have prepared the torment of the flaming fire. And for those who believe not in their Lord is the torment of Hell; and horried the journey thither. When they shall be thrown into it, they shall hear it braying: And it shall boil---almost it shall burst for fury. So oft as a crowd shall be thrown into it. Its keepers shall ask them, "Came not the warners to you? They shall say, yea! There came to us one charged with warning: but we treated him as a liar, and said" Nothing hath God sent down" Ye are in nothing but a vast-delusion". And they shall say, "Had we but hearkened and understood, we had not been among the dwellers of the flames; and their sin shall they acknowledge; but "Avaunt, ye dwellers in the flames. But pardon and a great reward for those who fear their Lord in secret! Be your converse hidden or open. He truly knoweth the inmost recess of your breasts! What! Shall He not know who hath created? For He is the subtle, the cognizant. It is He who hath made the earth level for you: Traverse then its broad sides, and eat of what He hath provided---unto Him shall be the resurrection. What! are ye sure that He who is in heaven will not cleave the earth beneath you? And lo! It shall quake.  Or are ye sure that He who is in the heaven will not send against you a stone-charged whirlwind? Then shall ye know what my warning (meant) 9.

  (67x1-17)

----------------------------------------------------------------

(9)        This passage like most passages of the Quran is very meaningful for this age of the braying hell of machines, bombs, atomic bombs and hell bombs, that almost burst for fury. This modern science-guided knowledge had rendered the understanding of divine warnings extremely difficult in a mankind being helplessly dragged toward the braying atomic Hell,  and inexorable indeed are the laws, and invite able the consequences. Atom through atomism to atomic hell. Or atomism through atom to atomic hell; What-ever be the case, what-result is clear.

PHILO

(4)        "Life seems to be utterly unimportant ".

QURAN

(a)        "And thou wilt find them greediest of mankind for life and (greedier) than the idolaters. (Each) one of them would like to live a thousand years. And to live (a thousand years), would by no means remove him form the doom. Allah is seer of what ye do".

  (2x96)

(b)        "Know that this present life (is) only a toy and a vain amusement".

  (57x20)

(c)        "But the future mansion (of paradise) is life indeed; if they knew".

  (29x64)

(d)        "By thy life they wander blindly in the frenzy of approaching death".

  (15x72)

PHILO

(5)        "We living things are somehow off the main line".

QURAN

(a)        "Lo! This Quran guideth unto that which is straightest".

  (17x9)

(b)        "Behold what is in the heavens and the earth! But revelations and warnings avail not folk who will not believe".

  (10x101)

(c)        "When he becometh acquainted with aught of our signs he makes it jest. For such there is a shameful doom" (9-a)

              (45x9)

(d)        "Indeed it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts, which are within the bosoms".

  (22x46)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(9-a)    No doubt the way in which this philosopher has turned the scientific information about the works of God into ridicule is a remarkable example of its kind. A very painful doom, however, in the form of an atomic hell is now ready to punish them.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

SECTION (ii) (k)

We do not know whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural, and indeed almost inevitable, that life should come. Another holds that after one accident had brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life. The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms -- carbon such as we find in soot or lamp-black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water; nitrogen, such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on. Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the new-born earth. At intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell---indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? Or, to put it in another way, could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of "Meccano" and then make it go? We do not know the answer, when it comes it will give us some indication whether other words in space are inhabited like ours, and so must have the greatest influence on or interpretation of the meaning of life --- it may well reproduce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo's Astronomy or Darwin's Biology.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5-6)

The philosopher is fallen in doubt about the sufficiency of the suitable physical conditions for the appearance of life. Science is unable to give him the answer, for the process takes place beyond the view of science. Whether merely suitable physical conditions be sufficient to produce life or whether some other agency also has to take part in the process, religion attributes the fact to the command of God. But what is the internal motive of the philosopher is all this is the question. He only seeks a proof of the accidental nature of the appearance of life to negate the religious view on the point. And what sort of revolution will be set in if the discovery was made about life's appearance as merely the result of the suitable physical conditions, and that no other (divine) agency was involved. To our philosopher it appears that such a discovery will veritably prove the falsify of religious doctrine of God's hand in the appearance of life, and thus the idea of accidental birth of life will be ultimately proved. Read the answers of the Quran and mark the appropriateness. And also shudder at the wretchedness of a world steeped in the belief of accident birth of life, sans God, plan, design, faith, resurrection and all. That will be a world of wisdomized beasts exposed to shameless destruction.

PHILO

We do not know whether suitable physical conditions are sufficient in themselves to produce life. One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural, and indeed almost inevitable, that life should come. Another holds that after one accident had brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life. The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms -- carbon such as we find in soot or lamp-black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water; nitrogen, such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on. Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the new-born earth. At intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell---indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? Or, to put it in another way, could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of "Meccano" and then make it go? We do not know the answer, when it comes it will give us some indication whether other words in space are inhabited like ours, and so must have the greatest influence on or interpretation of the meaning of life --- it may well reproduce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo's Astronomy or Darwin's Biology.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5-6)

PHILO

            "We do not know whether suitable physical conditions are in themselves sufficient to produce life".

QURAN

(a)        "Have they not seen how we had created for them of our handiwork the cattle, so that they are their owners".

  (36x71)

(b)        "Allah effaceth what He will, and establisheth (what He will), and with Him is the source of ordinance".

  (13x39)

(c)        "The sight comprehendeth Him not, but He comrpehdndeth the sight. He is subtle and wise".

  (6x103)

(d)        "Our Lord is He who gave unto every-thing its nature, then guided it aright".

  (20x50)

(e)        "He witholdeth the heaven that it fall not on the earth, unless by His permission".

  (22x65)

(f)         "When (the soul of a dying man) cometh up to (His) throat, and ye at the same time are looking on and We are nigher unto Him than ye, but ye see not (his true condition): would ye not; if ye are not t o be rewarded (for your actions hereafter) cause the same in return (into the body) if ye speak truth".10

(56x87)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(10)      This indeed is a more subtle challenge than the possibility of the appearance of life automatically in suitable physical conditions and correct arrangement of the atoms of the cells".

----------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(2)        "One school of thought holds that as the earth gradually cooled, it was natural, and indeed almost inevitable that life should come". (10-a)

---------------------------------------------------------------

(10-a)  Even if life appears by merely the correct arrangement of atoms, the will, plan, and the command resorts to the creator according to the Quran, for it is He who has formulated the entire system, and it is His constant will and power that sustains it.

---------------------------------------------------------------

QURAN

(a)        " Have you considered what you sow? Is it you that cause it to grow, or are We the causers of growth? If We pleased, We should have made it broken down into pieces, then would you being to lament: We are burnedened with debt: Nay: We are deprived. Have you considered the water you drink? Is it you that send it down from the clouds, or are we the senderes" If we pleased, we would have made it saltish, why do you not then give thanks? Have you considered the fire which you strike? Is it you that produce the trees for it, or are We the producers? We have made it a reminder and an advantage for the way-farers of the deserts.  So glorify the name of thy Lord, the Great".

  (56x63-74)

(b)        "(God) bringeth forth the living out of the dead, and He bringeth forth the dead out of living, and He quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead".

  (30x19)

(c)        "His verily is all creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds".

  (7x54)

(d)        "And not an atom's weight in the earth or in the sky escapeth your Lord, nor what is less than that, but it is written in a clear book" (11)

  (10x61)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(11)      Whether God undertakes the job as a chemist as we see in laboratories or whether it is His present will and command that affects, or whether everything is going on according to his preordained and predesigned scheme, the fact is that His alone is the right to sovereignty and remembrance.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(12)      The word accident is indeed objectionable when used in reference to the work of the Omniscient, Omnipotent and Omnipresent Creator. Accidents happen when either there is no control, or it is lost. It is does not apply to the master of the universe, nothing can happen either accidentally or without his knowledge in the natural phenomena. Accident in natural phenomenon is impossibility. The application of such words as accident or blind-chance to natural phenomena is a gross error Nothing therein happens without the will and command of the all-powerful and ever vigilant creator.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(3)        "Another (school of thought) holds that after one accident brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life" (12).

QURAN

(a)        "Created the earth in two days".

  (41x9-13)

(b)        "Verily we created the heaven and the earth, and all that is between them, in six days, and naught of weariness touched us".

  (50x38)

(c)        "Naught of disaster befalleth in the earth, nor in your persons, but (the same was entered) in the book (of our decrees), before We created it". (12-a)

              (57z22)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(12-a) See how the possibility of the term accident ----as is generally understood-----is negated.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(d)        "Do they not behold the birds above them, extending and drawing back their wing? None sustaineth them except the Merciful; for He regardeth all things".

  (67x19)

(e)        "He withholdeth the heaven that it fall not on the earth, unless by His permission".

  (22x65)

(f)         "They make not a due estimation of God".

  (39x67)

(g)        "His are the keys of heaven and earth".

  (39x63)

(h)        "There is nothing hidden in heaven or the earth but it is in clear record".

  (27x74-75)

PHILO

(4)        "Another school of thought holds that after one accident brought the earth into being, a second was necessary to produce life".

QURAN

(a)        "The trumpet shall be sounded, and whoever are on the earth shall expire; except those whom God shall please (to exempt from the common fate). Afterwards it shall be sounded again; and behold, they shall arise and look (up).Ad the earth shall shine by the light of its Lord". (13)

(39x68-69)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(13)      A group of scientists thought two accidents necessary to produce life on earth. The Quran says in two days God created the earth.  The Quran further alludes to the trumpets sounding twice. At the first sounding all that is in heaven and earth shall expire. While at the second sounding they shall arise and look up

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(b)        " Whatever matter ye disagree about, the decision thereof (appartaineth) unto God".

  (42x10)

PHILO

The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms -- carbon such as we find in soot or lamp-black; hydrogen and oxygen, such as we find in water; nitrogen, such as forms the greater part of the atmosphere; and so on.

QURAN

"Thereof We created you, and thereunto we return you. (That is from this earth).

  920x55)

PHILO

(6)        "The material constituents of a living body are perfectly ordinary chemical atoms".

QURAN

(a)         "God created you first of dust".

  (35x11)

(b)        "It is He who hath created you of clay, and then decreed the term (of your lives); and the prefixed term is with Him. Yet do ye doubt thereof".

  (6x22)

PHILO

(7)        "Every kind of atom necessary for life must have existed on the new born earth".

QURAN

(a)        "Have we not made the earth a receptacle both for the living and the dead".

  (77x25-26)

(b)        "Created the earth in two days----- And measured therein its substances in four days, alike for (all) who ask, then turned he to the heavens, when it was smoke".

  (41x9-13)

PHILO

(8)        At intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell---indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet.

QURAN

(a)        "What alieth you that ye judge thus? Have ye a book, wherein ye read that ye are therein promised that which ye shall choose? Or have you a covenant on oath from Us that reacheth to the Day of Judgment, that yours shall be all that ye ordain? Ask them which of them shall vouch for that. Or have they companions (who will vouch for them)? Let them produce their compassion, therefore, if they speak truth" (14)

(68x36-41)

(b)        "He (God) ordereth all things".

              (13x2)

(c)        "It is He (Allah) who formeth you in the wombs as he pleaseth"(14-a)

(3x6)

----------------------------------------------------------------

(14)      Let the scientists produce those patron theorists who make theories like that. And let the proofs be produced, for science accepts nothing as a verity without substantial, scientific proof. Let Galileo speak, et Darwin speak, let Einstein speak if they can on this matter with certainty?

----------------------------------------------------------------

(14-a) Celebrities only could have the judgment to appreciate the level of the Quran which over-reaches even this age of knowledge and science

----------------------------------------------------------------

(d)        "Bring hither your proof of what you have asserted. And they shall know that the right (is) God's (alone); and the (deities) which they have devised will abandon them".

  (28x75)

(e)        " O, man, what hath seduced thee against they glorious Lord, who hath created thee, and put the together, and rightly disposed thee? In what form He pleaseth hath He fashioned thee. Assuredly. But ye deny the (last) judgment as a falsehood".

  (82x6-9)

PHILO

intervals a group of atoms might happen to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in the living cell---indeed, given sufficient time, they would be certain to do so, just as certain as the six monkeys would be certain, given sufficient time, to type off a Shakespeare sonnet. But would they then be a living cell? In other words, is a living cell merely a group of ordinary atoms arranged in some non-ordinary way, or is it something more? Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life? 15 QURAN

"Have breathed of my spirit into Him

              (15x28-31)

----------------------------------------------------------------

15-Now this is a question whose answer man probably shall never know. Our philosopher is tending only to prove the probability of accident in the appearance of life and consequently to a life without design, plan, purpose or the divine government and resurrection. Quran certainly cannot grant such an opinion. Radically opposite is Quran's view.

----------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(10)      "Is it merely atoms or is it atoms plus life".

QURAN

(a)        " (God) bringeth forth the living out of dead, and He bringeth forth the dead out of the living, and He quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead, and in like manner shall ye be brought forth form your graves".

  (30x19)

(b)        "O men, if ye be in doubt concerning the resurrection, (consider that) We (first) created you of the dust of the ground; afterwards of seed; afterwards, of a little coagulated blood, afterwards of a piece of flesh, perfectly formed (in part) and (in part) imperfectly formed; that We might make (our power) manifest unto you. And We cause that which We please to rest in the wombs until the appointed time (of delivery), then we bring you forth infants; and afterwards (We permit) you to attain your age of full strength: and one of you dieth (in his youth), and another of you is postponed to a decrepit age, so that he forgetteth whatever he knew. Thou seest the earth (sometimes) dried up and barren: But when We send down rain therein, it is put in motion and swelleth, and produceth every kind of luxuriant (begetables). this (showeth) that God is the truth, and that He raiseth the dead to life, and that He raiseth the dead to life. And hat He is Al-Mighty, and that the hour (of judgment) will surely come (there is no doubt thereof), and that God will raise again those who are in the graves".

  (22x5-7)

PHILO

(11)      "Or to put it in another way, could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of the necessary atoms, as a boy can create a machine out of "Meccano" and then make it go?".

QURAN

(a)        "Is there any of your companions who produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return (Unto himself)? Say God produceth a creature and then causeth it to return (unto Himself).How therefore are ye turned aside (from His worship)"?

  (10x34)

(b)        "Have they attributed companions, who have created as he hath created, so that their creation bear any resemblance unto His? Say: God is the Creator of all things; He is the one, the victorious (God)".

  (13x16)

(c)        "It is not in your power to cause the trees thereof to shoot-forth. Is there (any other) God (partner) with (the true) God? Verily these are a people who deviate from the truth". (15-a)

  (27x60)

---------------------------------------------------------------

15-a Even if a chemist succeeds in creating life from atoms, the point of the Quran would not suffer falsification, for the material, processes, principle and power is God's anyone can sow the seed of a tree and look after it till the tree has fully grown. But does not the seed, the soil, the water, process and power belong to God? Can anyone produce these things of his won except God? Original creation is the point.

---------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(12)      " Could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of necessary atoms, as a boy can create, a machine out of "Mecanno" and then make it go? We do not know the answer".

QURAN

"And we will leave them to wander in their error".          (16-110)

PHILO

(13)     

Could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of necessary atoms, as a boy can create, a machine out of "Menace" and then make it go? We do not know the answer. When it comes it will give us some indication whether other worlds in space are inhabited like sours, and so must have the greatest influence on our interpretation of the meaning of life--it may produce a greater revolution of thought than Galileo's astronomy or Darwin's Biology".

QURAN

"They have sworn by God, by the most solemn oath, that if a sign came unto them, they would certainly believe therein. Say: Verily signs are in the power of God alone; and He permitteth you not to understand that when they come, they will not believe. And We will turn aside their hearts and their sight (from the truth), as they believed not therein the first time; and We will leave them to wander in their error".

  (6x109-110)

PHILO

(14)      " Could a sufficiently skillful chemist create life out of necessary atoms, as a boy can create, a machine out of "Mecanno" and then make it go?".

QURAN

"I (Jesus) have come to you (O, Children of Israel) with a sign from your Lord, that I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breath into it and it becomes a(flying) bird!6 with God's permission ......and (I) bring the dead to life, with God's permission".

  (3x49)

------------------------------------------------------------

16. This Jesus is said to have done in his childhood.

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PHILO

(15)      "Galileo's Astronomy17, that is the former view of the sun revolving about the earth topsiturvified".

---------------------------------------------------------------

(17)     Galileo's view is the previous view of solar system topsiturvified. Milton a contemporary of Galileo and apparently the last arrow in the quiever of Christianity against the modern atomism sought to appease the then raging controversy in the following words:-

"What if the sun

Be centre to the world, and other stars,

By his attractive venture and their own

incited, dance about him various rounds?

Their wandering course now high,

now low, now hid,

Progressive, retrogressive, or standing still,

In six thou seest, and what if seventh to these

the Planet earth, so steadfast though she seem

Insensibly three different motions move".

  (Paradise Lost book VIII)

Read our quotations from the 67th chapter of the Quran and try to essay its every sign (verse) in reference to Galileo's topsiturvified view of the solar system, in further reference to the principles and the effects of the mother theory, that of Bacon's modern atomism, and you are sure to find amazing relevance. One may with Milton say: Why a moving earth should damage the notion of religion, yet Galieleo's discovery did in fact do considerable damage to Christian faith and faith in general. Why it should have been so, is a question worth the consideration of the philosophers, now that the whole affair shines in dazzling colours before the eyes of mankind.

----------------------------------------------------------------

QURAN

(a)        "Is he therefore who goeth grovelling on his face better directed than he who walketh upright in a straight way?".

  (67x22)

(b)        "Blessed is He in whose hand is the sovereignty, and He is able to do all things (17-a) who hath created death and life that He may try you which of you is best in conduct; and He is the mighty, the forgiving, who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou canst see no fault in the beneficent one's creation, then look again, canst thou see any rifts? Then look again and yet again, they sight will return unto thee awakened and made dim. And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with lamp, and we have made them missiles or the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flames. And for those who disbelieve in their Lord there is the doom of hell, hapless journey's end! When they are flung in it they hear its roaring as it boileth up. As it would burst with rage. Whenever (fresh) host is flung therein the wardens thereof ask them : Came there unto you no Warner" They say: Yea verily, a Warner came unto us:  but we denied and said: Allah hath naught revealed; yet are not but in a great error. And they say: Had we been wont to listen or have sense, we had not bee among the dwellers in the flames. So they acknowledge their sins; but far removed (from mercy) are the dwellers in the flames.

Lo! Those who, fear their Lord in secret, their's will be forgiveness and a great reward. And keep your opinion secret or proclaim it. Lo! He is knower of all that is in the breasts (of men). Should he not know what he created? And He is the subtle, the aware. He it is who hath made the earth subservient unto you, so walk in the paths thereof and eat of His providence. And unto Him will be the resurrection (of the dead). Heave yet taken security from Him who is in the heaven that He will not cause the earth to swallow you when lo! It is convulsed> Or have yet taken security from Him who is in the heaven that He will not let loose on you a hurricane"? He will to let loose on you a hurricane? But ye shall know the manner of my warning. And verily those before them denied, then (see) the manner of My wrath (with the)!

Have they not seen the birds above them spreading out their wings and closing them? Naught upholdeth them save the beneficent. Lo!! He is seer of all things. Or who is he who will be an army unto you to help you instead of the beneficent? The disbelievers are in naught but illusion. Is he therefore who goeth grovelling on his face better directed than he who walketh upright in a straight way?".

(67x1-22)

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(17-a) The age which began with Galileo's astronomy is characteristically discussed by the Quran in these signs (verses).

---------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(16)      "Galieleo's astronomy; that is the former review of the sun revolving about the earth tospsiturvified (17-b)

---------------------------------------------------------

(17-b)  Whether the sun or the earth moves, it makes no difference, for all belongs to God, and it is all his own doing. They only make it an issue.

-------------------------------------------------------------

QURAN

"Say: Unto whom (belongeth) the earth and whosoever is therein, if ye have in wedge? They will say: Unto Allah. Say: will ye not then remember? Say", Who is the Lord of seven heavens, and Lord of the tremendous throne? They will say: Unto Allah (all that belongeth) say: Will ye not then keep duty (unto Him)? Say : In whose hands is the dominion over all things and he protecteth, while against Him there is no protection, if ye have knowledge? They will say: Unto Allah (all that belongeth).Say. How then are ye bewitched? Nay: But we have brought them the truth, and Lo! They are liars".

  (23x84-90)

PHILO

"Galileo's astronomy: That is the former view of the sun revolving about the earth topsiturvified".

QURAN

"It is not righteous that ye turn your faces to the east and the west, but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the last day and the angels and the scriptures and the prophets; and giveth his wealth, for love of Him, to kinfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slaves free; and observeth proper-worship and pay the poor-due, and those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of distress. Such are they who are sincere. (17-c) Such are the God-fearing".

  (21x177)

PHILO

"Galileo's astronomy: That is the former view of the sun revolving about the earth topsiturvified".

QURAN

"He causeth the night to cover the day".

"It is God who hath raised the heavens without visible pillars; (and) then ascended his throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to perform their services; every (of the heavenly bodies) runneth an appointed course. He ordereth (all) runneth an appointed course.  He ordereth (all) things. He showeth (His) signs distinctly, that ye may be assured ye must meet your Lord (18) at the last day (it is) he who hath stretched forth the earth, and placed therein, steadfast (mountain), and rivers; and hath ordained therein of every fruit two (different) kinds. He causeth the night to cover the day. Herein are certain signs unto people who consider".

  (13x2-3)

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(17-c) God's glorification and not falsification of the expressions of the scriptures about the natural phenomena ought to be the object of the contemplation of the works of God.

---------------------------------------------------------------

18        Mark the difference between the object of contemplation according to the Quran and this modern Baconian culture. The Quran has the meeting with the Lord on resurrection in view, while the modern culture has the worldly advancement in sight. This is a point of momentous imports that warrants discrimination today to save this world from the flame so the atomic hell. Since Galielo's discovery man's topsiturvified mind and the topsiturvified universe are in revolution carelessly about each other o the principle of relativity. Man's mind never saw rest ever since,

----------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(19)      "Galileo's astronomy: That is the former view of the sun revolving about the earth topsiturvified".

QURAN

(a)        "Allah causeth the night to cover the day".

  (13x3)

(b)        "Unto Allah belong the east and the west, and whatsoever ye turn, there is Allah's countenance. Allah is all-embracing, all-knowing".

  (2x115)

PHILO

(20)      "And Darwin's biology, (19) that is , man was evolved from a base ape-like animal through the process of natural selection and on the principle of comparative fitness for survival".

--------------------------------------------------------------

(19) Just as in the case of Galileo's astronomy , in Darwin's biology too it is not the biology that is of consequence, but rather the real object is the case of a philosophy emanating from the same origin that of Bacon's modern atomism. Whether the species were evolved or not, and whether man had been developed from a base or a high origin, the fact is that Darwin's philosophy has deprived human-kind of every virtue, from nobility, morality, sympathy and generosity to faith. It has changed this mankind into a really base, selfish, heedless and unweary anthropoids, or at least they have come to think and look like that.

---------------------------------------------------------

QURAN

"Who doth greater wrong then He who deviseth a lie concerning Allah, that he may lead mankind astray without knowledge. Lo! Allah guideth not the wrong ding folk".

  (6x144)

PHILO

(21)      "Darwin's biology : A research for the origin of species".

QURAN

"Their likeness is the likeness of one who kindleth fire, and when it shaddeth its light around him, Allah taketh away their light and leaveth them in darkness. Where they cannot see. Deaf, dumb and blind they return not. Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and the flash lightening. They thrust their fingers in their ears by reason of the thunderscaapes, for fear of death. Allah encompasseth the disbeleivers (in His guidance).The lightening almost snatcheth away their sight form them. As often as it flashes forth for them they walk therein, and when it darkeneth against them they stand still. If Allah willed, He could destroy their hearing and their sight. Lo! Allah is able to do all things"(19-a).

  (2x17-20)

--------------------------------------------------------------

(19-a) Darwin would have confessed the truth of this description in the light of his experience in his search after the origin.

------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(22)      "Darwin's biology: A view of man's ape-like origin".

QURAN

(a)        " God hath cursed, and with whom He hath been angry, having changed (some) of the into apes, and swine, and (who) serve idols, they are in the worse condition, and err more (widely) from the straightens of the path".

  (5x60)

(b)        "Surely we created man of the best stature, then we reduced him to the lowest of the low. Save those who believe and do god works, and there's is a reward unfailing".

  (95x4-6)

(c)        "We created you, then fashioned you, then told the angels; fall ye prostrate before Adam! And they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. Who was not of those who make prostration".

  (7x11)

PHILO

(23)      "Darwin's biology: A philosophy of the survival of the fittest".

QURAN

(a)        " Thou shalt in no wise reckon those who have been slain in the cause of God, dead: nay, they are sustained alive with their Lord, rejoicing for what God of His favour hath granted them; and being glad fro those, who coming after them, have not as yet overtaken them, because, there shall not fear come on them, neither shall they be grieved. They are filled with joy for the favour (which they have received) from God, and (His) bounty; and for that God suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish (20)".

  (3x169)

---------------------------------------------------------------

(20) Here then is a different type of a fitness for survival maintained by the Quran against the Darwinian standards of fitness for survival. Refer also to the Darwinian struggle for food and see how God provides for the martyrs. Observe how the unfittest for survival Darwinially becomes fittest recording to the doctrine of the Quran.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(b)        "Lo ! The party of Allah ; they are the victorious".

  (5x56)

We have cited the bare essentials where the Quran differed with Darwin philosophically. And it is actually the philosophy of Darwin that counts. These essentials, however, will sufficiently illustrate the Quran. Darwin relation for those who have the knowledge of Darwin. Darwin made so sudden and so lengthy a leap into the dark regions of remote antiquity where he was left to imaginative speculation. H.G. Wells went into the future. Darwin went into the past. The eager acceptance of Darwin's philosophy may be attributed to the spirit of scientific and anti-religious tendency of the age. Whether Darwin himself realized it or not, the peculiarly vindictive characteristic of the Jewish spirit was at work to spoil the human mind. They who opposed his philosophy where all sober and capable naturalists. But they failed, for the mind was against them.

SECTION (ii) (l)

We do, however, know that while living matter consists of quite ordinary atoms, it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or "Molecules".

Most atoms do not possess this property. The atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen, for instance may combine to form molecules of Hydrogen, (H 2 or H3) of oxygen or Ozone (O2 or O3), of water (H2O), or of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2 O2) but none of these compounds contains more than four atoms. The addition of Nitrogen does not greatly change the situation; the compounds of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen all contain comparatively few atoms. But the further addition of Carbon completely transforms the picture; the atoms of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon combine to form molecules containing hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of atoms. It is of such molecules that living bodies are mainly formed. Until a century ago it was commonly supposed that some "vital force" was necessary to produce these and other substances which entered into other composition of the living body. Then Wholer produced Urea (CO (NH 2)2 which is a typical animal product, in his laboratory, by the ordinary processes of chemical synthesis, and other constituents of the living body followed in due course. Today one phenomenon after another which was at one time attributed to "vital force" is being traced to the action of the ordinary processes of Physics and Chemistry. Although the problem is still far from solution, it is becoming increasingly likely that what specially distinguishes the matter of living bodies is the presence not of a "vital force" but of the quite common place element Carbon, always in connection with other atoms with which it forms exceptionally large molecules.

(The Mysterious Universe page 6-7)

The philosopher has known that the substance of the living body is this very ordinary matter of earth, and has succeed in preparing certain animal products a synthetically, though the problem is still far from solutions. See how candidly the Quran has proceeded to endorse the apparently palpable views of the philosopher, but never lose sight of the cankerous inward intent of the philosopher's argument, nor will the Quran ever ignore the particular bent of our philosopher's mind.

"We do, however, know that while living matter consists of quite ordinary atoms, it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or "Molecules".

Most atoms do not possess this property. The atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen, for instance may combine to form molecules of Hydrogen, (H 2 or H3) of oxygen or Ozone (O 2 or O3), of water (H2O), or of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) but none of these compounds contains more than four atoms. The addition of Nitrogen does not greatly change the situation; the compounds of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen all contain comparatively few atoms. But the further addition of Carbon completely transforms the picture; the atoms of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon combine to form molecules containing hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of atoms. It is of such molecules that living bodies are mainly formed. Until a century ago it was commonly supposed that some "vital force" was necessary to produce these and other substances which entered into other composition of the living body. Then Wholer produced Urea (CO (NH2)2 which is a typical animal product, in his laboratory, by the ordinary processes of chemical synthesis, and other constituents of the living body followed in due course. Today one phenomenon after another which was at one time attributed to "vital force" is being traced to the action of the ordinary processes of Physics and Chemistry. Although the problem is still far from solution, it is becoming increasingly likely that what specially distinguishes the matter of living bodies is the presence not of a "vital force" but of the quite common place element Carbon, always in connection with other atoms with which it forms exceptionally large molecules21"..

(The Mysterious Universe page 6-7)

________________________________________________21. The biologist will in this section discover such wonders displayed by the Quran which to a thoughtful biologists throw into reveries. Such are the revealing descriptions therein of the phenomena of biological creation of man.

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(1)        "We do, however, know that while living matter consists of quite ordinary atoms, it consists in the main of atoms which have a special capacity for coagulating into extra-ordinary large bunches or "Molecules".

QURAN

"Hath created man of coagulated blood".

  (96x2)

PHILO

(2)        "The atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen, for instance may combine to form molecules of Hydrogen, (H2 or H3) of oxygen or Ozone (O2 or O3), of water (H2O), or of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) but none of these compounds contains more than four atoms. The addition of Nitrogen does not greatly change the situation; the compounds of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen all contain comparatively few atoms. But the further addition of Carbon completely transforms the picture; the atoms of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon combine to form molecules containing hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of atoms. It is of such molecules that living bodies are mainly formed:.

QURAN

(a)        "He created man of baked clay alike on earthen vessel (21-a) , but He created the genii of fire clear from smoke".

  (55x14-15)

(b)        "We created man of dried clay, of black mud, (21-b), formed into shape, and we have before created the devil of subtle fire".

  (15x28-31)

---------------------------------------------------------------------

(21-a) Might be the carbon atom does to other atoms which fire does to potter's clay during baking. If correct, this is a remarkable hint for Sir James Jeans. A hint worth noting.

(21-b (Mark the illusion to black carbon.

-----------------------------------------------------

PHILO

(3)        "Until a century ago it was commonly supposed that some "vital force" was necessary to produce these and other substances which entered into other composition of the living body".

QURAN

(a)        "Verily our speech unto anything, when we will the same (is), that we only say, unto it, be; and it is".

  (16x40)

(b)        "And remember when thy Lord said before the angels, verily I am about to create man of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape, when therefore I shall have completely formed him, and shall have breathed my spirit into him; do ye fall down and worship him".

  (15x28-31)

(c)        "We formerly created man of a finer sort of clay' afterwards we placed him (in the form of) seed in a sure receptacle (womb); afterwards We made the seed coagulated blood; and we formed the flash' then we formed the pieces of flesh into bones, and We clothed those bones with flesh; and then produced it as another creation. Wherefore blessed be God, most excellent creator".

  (23x12-14)

SECTION (ii) (m)

If this is so, life exists in the universe only because the Carbon atom possesses certain exceptional properties. Perhaps Carbon is rather noteworthy chemically as forming a sort of transition between the metals and non-metals, but so far noting in the physical constitution of the Carbon atom is known to account for its very special capacity for binding other atoms together. The Carbon atom consists of six electrons revolving around the appropriate central nucleus, like six planets revolving around a central sun; it appears to differ from its two nearest neighbors in the table of chemical atoms, the atoms of Boron and Nitrogen, only in having one electron more than the former and one electronic fewer than the latter. yet this slight difference must account in the last resort for all the difference between life and absence of life. No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possess these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn't yet fathomed it.

(The Mysterious Universe page 7)

The appearance of life, our philosopher thinks, may be attributed to certain special properties of the Carbon atom. But rightly has. He confessed the ignorance of science hitherto about the reason why the six electron atom should possess such properties, and that such a reason resided somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature. The Quran gives instantaneous approval of the established scientific facts, and even offers suggestions, but does at the same time attribute the functioning of the process to God that has all knowledge, control and power. How far human knowledge could go is not known, but the knowledge of ultimate reality to the level of the essential spirit is for ever set beyond man's ken. But we have to keep in mind the basic intent of our philosopher here, which is to prove the life as accidental.

If this is so, life exists in the universe only because the Carbon atom possesses certain exceptional properties. Perhaps Carbon is rather noteworthy chemically as forming a sort of transition between the metals and non-metals, but so far noting in the physical constitution of the Carbon atom is known to account for its very special capacity for binding other atoms together. The Carbon atom consists of six electrons revolving around the appropriate central nucleus, like six planets revolving around a central sun; it appears to differ from its two nearest neighbors in the table of chemical atoms, the atoms of Boron and Nitrogen, only in having one electron more than the former and one electronic fewer than the latter. yet this slight difference must account in the last resort for all the difference between life and absence of life. No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possess these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn't yet fathomed it.

(The Mysterious Universe page 7)

PHILO

(1)        "If this is so, life exists in the universe only because the Carbon atom possesses certain exceptional properties".

QURAN

(a)        "This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God".

  (36x38)

(b)        "The spirit was created at the command of My Lord".

  (17x85)

PHILO

(2)        "Perhaps Carbon is rather noteworthy chemically as forming a sort of transition between the metals and non-metals, but so far noting in the physical constitution of the Carbon atom is known to account for its very special capacity for binding other atoms together:.

QURAN

"If thou hadst expended whatever (riches are) in the earth, thou couldst not have united their hearts, but God united them, for He is mighty and wise".

  (8-63)

PHILO

"  The Carbon atom consists of six electrons revolving around the appropriate central nucleus, like six planets revolving around a central sun; it appears to differ from its two nearest neighbors in the table of chemical atoms, the atoms of Boron and Nitrogen, only in having one electron more than the former and one electronic fewer than the latter".

QURAN

"Verily God kneweth them and numbereth them with (right) numbering".

  (19x93-94)

PHILO

(4)        "yet this slight difference must account in the last resort for all the difference between life and absence of life. ".

QURAN

(a)        "If Allah were to take mankind to task for their wrong-doing, He would no leave hereon a living creatures, but He reprieveth them to an appointed term, and when their term cometh they cannot put (it) off an hour nor( yet) advance it".

  (16x61)

(b)        "Your creation and your raising (from the dead) are only as (the creation and the raising of) a singe soul. Lo! Allah is hearer, knower".

  (31x28)

PHILO

(5)        "No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possess these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn't yet fathomed it".

QURAN

(a)        "Praise the name of thy Lord the most High, who createth, then disposeth, whom assureth, then guideth".

  (87x1-3)

(b)        "So they worship not Allah, who bringeth forth the hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knoweth what ye hide and what ye proclaim".

  (27x25)

(c)        "Proofs have come unto you from your Lord, so whose seeth, it is for his own good, and whose is blind is blind to his own hurt".

  (6x104)

PHILO

(6)        ""No doubt the reason why the six electron atom possess these remarkable properties resides somewhere in the ultimate laws of nature, but mathematical physics hasn't yet fathomed it22".

----------------------------------------------------------------

22 .Man may keep on divulging secret after secret of nature, revealing mystery after mystery, yet the knowledge of the ultimate reality is not granted to man".

QURAN

(a)        " They will ask thee concerning the spirit. Say: The spirit is by command of my Lord, and knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little".

  (17x85)

(b)        "Allah surrendereth all things in knowledge".

  (65x12)

SECTION (ii) (n)

"Other similar cases are known to Chemistry. Magnetic phenomenon appears in a tremendous degree in Iron and in a lesser degree in its neighbours Nickel and Cobalt. The atoms of these elements have 26, 27 and 28 electrons respectively. The magnetic properties of all other atoms are almost negligible in compassion. Somehow, then, although again, mathematical physics has not yet unraveled how, magnetisms depends on the peculiar properties of the 26,27 and 28 electron atoms, especially the first, radio-activity provides a third instances, being confined, with insignificant exceptions, to atoms having from 83 to 92 electrons; again we do not know why".

(The Mysterious Universe page 7-8)

Other similar cases are known to the philosopher, but the knowledge obtained is only superficial. The mathematical physics has not as yet fathomed the basic reason. The Quran in such a situation habitually attributed the knowledge and the system to the creator, whose divine control and interest the philosopher wants to deny through constant endeavour, and a lengthy, tenaciously maintained, and amazingly arrayed avalanche of cold.

"Other similar cases are known to Chemistry. Magnetic phenomenon appear in a tremendous degree in Iron and in a lesser degree in its neighbours Nickel and Cobalt. The atoms of these elements have 26, 27 and 28 electrons respectively. The magnetic properties of all other atoms are almost negligible in compassion. Somehow, then, although again, mathematical physics has not yet unraveled how, magnetism's depends on the peculiar properties of the 26,27 and 28 electron atoms, especially the first, radio-activity provides a third instances, being confined, with insignificant exceptions, to atoms having from 83 to 92 electrons; again we do not know why".

(The Mysterious Universe page 7-8)

PHILO

"Again we do not know why".

QURAN

(a)        "When will grasp their meanings save the wise".

  (29x43)

(b)        "Over every Lord of knowledge one more knowing".

              (12x76)

(c)        "Our Lord is He who gave unto everything its nature, then guided it aright".

  (20x50)

(d)        "Behold what is in the heavens and the earth: But revelations and the warnings avail not folk who will not believe".

  (10x101)

SECTION (ii) (o)

"Thus Chemistry can only tell us to place life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity. The Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws. As a consequence of these laws, atoms having certain definite numbers of electrons, namely 6, 26 to 28 and 83 to 92, have certain special properties, which show themselves in the phenomena of life, magnetism and Radio-activity respectively. An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws. If some other set of laws had been chosen, other special atoms might have had other special properties associated with them. We cannot say what, but it seems a priori unlikely that either radioactivity or magnetism or life would have figured amongst them. Chemistry suggests that, like magnetism and radioactivity, life may merely be an accidental consequence, of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed.

(The Mysterious Universe page 8)         

The whole line of argument leads only to one conclusion, that is like magnetism and radio-activity life too may be an accidental consequence of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed. It means that the philosopher knows and believes in the process, and the laws of the universe, and what he is doubtful of is the mind of the creator in the creation of life. No better example if godless naturalism could be found. The fallacy of such a mind resided in the basic nature, yet could without difficulty be detected in the utterances of the tongue. The facts cited in the above-quoted passage are most sound, though the inference drawn there from is most unsound and you will see the Quran not at all reluctant to endorse every fact that is sound, but mark the intent of the philosopher and judge Quran's answer.

PHILO

"Thus Chemistry can only tell us to place life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity. The Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws. As a consequence of these laws, atoms having certain definite numbers of electrons, namely 6, 26 to 28 and 83 to 92, have certain special properties, which show themselves in the phenomena of life, magnetism and Radio-activity respectively. An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws. If some other set of laws had been chosen, other special atoms might have had other special properties associated with them. We cannot say what, but it seems a priori unlikely that either radioactivity or magnetism or life would have figured amongst them. Chemistry suggests that, like magnetism and radioactivity, life may merely be an accidental consequence, of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed.

(The Mysterious Universe page 8)

PHILO

(1)        ""Thus Chemistry can only tell us to place life in the same category as magnetism and radio-activity".

QURAN

"Small misunderstanding".

  (48x15)

PHILO

(2)        "The Universe is built so as to operate according to certain laws. As a consequence of these laws, atoms having certain definite numbers of electrons, namely 6, 26 to 28 and 83 to 92, have certain special properties, which show themselves in the phenomena of life, magnetism and Radio-activity respectively".

QURAN

(a)        "Lord enjoineth justice".

  (16x90)

(b)        "The sky hath He uplifted and He hath set the measure".

  (55x7)

(c)        "Allah hath set a measure for all things".

  (65x3)

(d)        "It is the law of Allah which hath taken course before time. Thou will not find for the law of Allah ought of power to change".

  (48x23)

(e)        " Nor wilt thou find for Allah's way of treatment ought of power to change".

  (35x43)

PHILO

(a)        "An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no restrictions whatever".

QURAN

(a)        "Doer of what He will".

  (11x107)

(b)        "He createth that He will. And Allah is able to do all things".

  (5x17)

(c)        "Allah affecteth that He will and establisheth what He will" and with Him is the source of Ordinance".

  (13x39)

(d)        " We will show them Our signs on the Horizons, and within themselves, until it will be manifest unto them that it is the truth (22-a)". (41x5

________________________________________________

(22-a) These signs are now clear in the form of universal and individual discontent, heart-burning ,anarchy, disease, riots, terrorism, and failure  of modern progress in its goals, and above all else a blazing, braying atomic hell. The result of ignoring Quran's teachings and warnings.

__________________________________________

PHILO

(4)        " An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws".

QURAN

(a)        "He is knower of every creation".

  (36x79)

(b)        "If He pleaseth, He can take you sway, and produce a new creation (in your stead) : Neither (will) this (be) difficult with God".

  (35x16-1)

(c)        "But nay! I swear by the Lord of rising places and the setting places of the planets, that we are able to replace them by (others) better than then,. And We are not to be outrun".

  (70x40-41)

(d)        "When We substitute a revelation in lieu of a revelation (abrogated), ad God best knoweth (the fitness of) that which He revealeth".

  (16x101)

(e)        " Such of Our revelations as We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring in place one better or the like thereof".

  (2x106)

(f)         "If We pleased, verily We could from yourselves produce angels, to succeed you in the earth".

  (43x60)

(g)        " If we had appointed an angel (for our messenger), We should have sent him (in the form) of a man, and as they are clothed".

  (6x9)

(h)        " Avait they aught, save that the angels should come unto them or thy Lord's command should come to pass? Even so did those before them. Allah wrongeth them not but they did wrong themselves".

  (16x33)

(i)         "They will abide therein (in the next world) for ever".

  (2x39)

PHILO

(5)        " An Omnipotent Creator, subject to no limitations whatever, would not have been restricted to the laws which prevail in the present Universe; He might have elected to build the inverse to conform to anyone of innumerable other sets of Laws. If some other set of laws had been chosen, other special atoms might have had other special properties associated with them. We cannot say what, but it seems a priori unlikely that either radioactivity or magnetism or life would have figured amongst them".

QURAN

(a)        " Lo! You are those who argue about that whereof ye have knowledge: Why then argue ye concerning that whereof ye have no knowledge? Allah knoweth. Ye know not".

  (3x66)

(b)        "Have ye any knowledge that ye can adduce for us? Lo! Ye follow naught but an opinion, Lo! Ye do but guess, for --Allah's is the final judgment had He swilled He could indeed have guided all of you".

  (6x148-149)

(c)        "And Lo! a guess can never take the place of the truth".

  (53x28)

(d)        "Would ye inform Allah of (something) that He knoweth not in the heavens or in the earth"?.

(e)        "He hath created all things and He is omniscient".

  (6x101)

PHILO

(6)        Chemistry suggests that, like magnetism and radioactivity, life may merely be an accidental consequence, of the special set of laws by which the present universe is governed".

QURAN

"We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in play. If we had wished to find a pastime, We could have found it in our presence--If we ever did. Nay but We hurl the true against the false, and it doth break its head, and Lo! it vanisheth. And your's will be woe for that which yea scribe (unto Him).

  (21x16-18)

SECTION (ii) (p)

"Again the word "Accidental" may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one special set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this were his way of Creating life? So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except perhaps by the remark, that when a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed. If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe.

(The Mysterious Universe page 8-9)

Our philosopher takes a very clever turn thinking that a man-like God only would create creatures like men. Vividly this is an effort to prove the accidental nature of life. And as usual he measures every thing by the yeardstick of mass and material activity to show the greater right of physics than biology to the great right of physics and biology to the special interest of the Great architect of the universe. Read the answers of the Quran keeping these points in mind, but you will always find in this study the Quran readily endorsing every point that is sound, rejecting every erroneous, misleading point with authority and with reason.

PHILO

"Again the word "Accidental" may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one special set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this were his way of Creating life? So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except perhaps by the remark, that when a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed. If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe.

(The Mysterious Universe page 8-9)

PHILO

(1)        "Again the word accidental may be challenged".

QURAN

(a)        "We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in play. If we had wished to find a pastime could have found it in our presence if We ever did.  Nay but We hurl the true against the false, and it doth break its head, and Lo! It vanisheth. And your's will be woe for that which ye ascribe (unto Him)".

  (21x16-18)

(b)        " Allah affecteth what He will, and establisheth (what He will), and with Him is the source of ordinance".

  (13x39)

(c)        "Not a leaf falleth but He knwoeth it, not again amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or dry but (it is noted) in a clear record".

  (6x59)

PHILO

(2)        "So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being activated by feelings and interests like our own".

QURAN

(a)        "The originator of the heavens and the earth How can He have a child, when there is for Him no consort, when He creatheth all things and is aware of all things".

  (6x101)

(b)        "Yet they ascribe as partners w unto Him jinn, although He, did create them, and impute falsely, without knowledge, a sons and daughters unto Him. Glorified be He and high exalted above (all) that they ascribe unto Him".

  (6x100)

(c)        "God hath most excellent names, therefore call on Him by the same, and withdraw from those who use his names perversely: They shall be regarded for that which they shall have wrought".

  (17x180)

(d)        "(There are) some men who dispute concerning God without knowledge, and without a direction and without enlightening book".

  (31x20)

(e)        "He is the hearer, the seer".

  (42x11)

(f)         "Hath given you (the sense of) hearing and seeing and hearts to understand".

  (32x9)

(g)        "Allah the beneficent, the merciful".

  (27x30)

PHILO

(3)        " If, however, we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds (concerning the person of the creator of the universe)".

QURAN

(a)        " There is nothing like Him".

  (42x11)

(b)        "The sight comprehendeth Him not, but He comprehendeth the sight".

  (6x103)

PHILO

(4)                    "Again the word "Accidental" may be challenged. For what if the Creator of the universe selected one special set of laws just because they led to the appearance of life? What if this were his way of Creating life?

QURAN

(a)        "Disbelieve ye verily in Him, who created the earth in two days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the worlds. He placed therein firm hills, rising above it and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four days, alike for (all) who ask, Then turned He to the heavens when it was smoke and said unto the earth: come both of you willingly or loath. They said we come obedient. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two days, and inspired in each heaven its in mandate, and we decked the nether heaven with lamps and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the mighty, the noble".

  (41x9-12)

(b)        "And if thou were to ask them. Who created the heavens and the earth and constrained the sun and the moon (to their appointed work)? They would say: Allah. How then were they turned away".

  (29x61)

PHILO

So long as we think of the Creator as a magnified man-like being, activated by feelings and interests like our own, the challenge cannot be met, except perhaps by the remark, that when a Creator has once been postulated, no argument can add much to what has already been assumed.

QURAN

(a)        " It is the law of Allah which has taken course afore-time. Thou will not find for the law o Allah ought of power to change".

  (48x23)

(b)        "Perfected is the word of thy Lord in truth and justice. There is naught that challenges. His words. He is the hearer, the knower".

  (6x115)

(c)        "He will not be questioned as to that which He doeth, but they will be questioned".

  (21x23)

PHILO

(6)        If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology.

QURAN

"See ye not Allah hath made serviceable unto you whatsoever is in the sky(23) and whatsoever is the earth, and hath loaded you with His favours both without and within? Yet of mankind is He who disputeth concerning Allah, without knowledge or guidance or a scripture giving light".

  (31x20)

PHILO

(7)        Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

(23) The entire universe is engaged in the service of life on earth. By way of a comparison it may be seen that it is not life that serves magnetism, or radio-activity, but it is magnetism as well as radio-activity that serve life. Elephant despite its greater magnitude serves man. Similarly, the sun, the moon, and the stars in the sky, and water and air on earth are all engaged in serving life.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

QURAN

(a)        "When a misfortune befalleth you at sea, the (false deities) whom ye invoke are forgotten (by you) except His (alone) :Yet when He bringeth you safe to dry land, ye retire after off (from Him, and return to your idols) for man is ungrateful",

  (17x 67)

(b)        "They rejoice in the life of the world, whereas the life of the world is but brief comfort as compared with the hereafter".

  (13x26)

SECTION (ii) (q)

A trivial analogy may exhibit the situation in clearer light. An un-imaginative sailor accustomed to tying knots might think it would be impossible to cross the ocean if tying knots were impossible. Now the capacity for tying knots is limited to space of three dimensions, no knot can be tied in a space of 1; 2; 4; 5 or any other number of dimensions. From this fact our unimaginative sailor might reason that a beneficent Creator must have had sailors under his special patronage; and have chosen that space should have three dimensions in order that tying knots and crossing the ocean should be possibilities in the universe he had created ---in brief space was of three dimensions, so that there could be sailors. This and the argument outlined above seem to be much on a level, because life as a whole and the tying knots are pretty much on a level in that neither of them forms more than an utterly insignificant fraction of the total activity of the materiel universe.

(The Mysterious Universe page 9-10)

This analogy appears as the sign-post of the terminus of the long line of the philosopher's argument to prove life as accidental and to prove it as unfit for creator's special interest. But just as the whole line of argument of the philosopher has been devoid of meanings, this sign post is devoid of senses. Seldom indeed such knowledge and such absurdity have appeared side by side as in the argument of this philosopher. To talk of the latest discoveries of science and the n to draw from them so lowly inferences is indeed a wonderful thing. Read what the Quran has to say on the point.

A trivial analogy may exhibit the situation in clearer light. An un-imaginative sailor accustomed to tying knots might think it would be impossible to cross the ocean if tying knots were impossible. Now the capacity for tying knots is limited to space of three dimensions, no knot can be tied in a space of 1; 2; 4; 5 or any other number of dimensions. From this fact our unimaginative sailor might reason that a beneficent Creator must have had sailors under his special patronage; and have chosen that space should have three dimensions in order that tying knots and crossing the ocean should be possibilities in the universe he had created ---in brief space was of three dimensions, so that there could be sailors. This and the argument outlined above seem to be much on a level, because life as a whole and the tying knots are pretty much on a level in that neither of them forms more than an utterly insignificant fraction of the total activity of the materiel universe.

(The Mysterious Universe page 9-10)

PHILO

(1)        "Our unimaginative sailor".

QURAN

(a)        "Men of understanding, such as remember Allah standing, sitting and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth and say: Our Lord!".

  (3x190-191)

(b)        "He unto whom wisdom hath been given, he truly hath received abundant good, and none remember except men of understanding".

  (2x269)

PHILO

(2)        "Three space dimensions".

QURAN

"Woe unto the repudiators on that day! (It will be said unto them): Depart unto that (doom) which ye used to deny: falling threefold (Triple massive), (which yet is) no relief nor shelter from the flame. Lo! It throweth up sparks like the castles, (or) as it might be camels of bright yellow hue (24) .This is a day wherein they speak not. Nor are they suffered t to put or the excuses. Woe unto the repudiators on that day".

  (77x28-37)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

(24) Einstein would read this materio-metaphysical theory with wonder, interest and appreciation, it is a strange theory of three spaced shade. Immaterial materialized immaterial. The challenge pertains to the denier of the next life in heaven.

--------------------------------------------------------------

SECTION (ii) (r)

"So much for the surprising manner in which so far as science can at present inform us, we came into being. And our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence or to force the destiny which fate has in store for our race.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10)

Because nothing but bewilderment is the lot of our philosopher as regards the purpose of four existence on earth, let the Quran speak t to clear our bewilderment. But let us not forget that assigning any purpose to man's creation would automatically destroy all the previous labour of the philosopher expended in proving the life as accidental. And cease to wonder at the quaint sluggishness and peculiar evasive tendency of the materialistic mind. It has always been thus. But only, perhaps now the end appears as near.

PHILO

"So much for the surprising manner in which so far as science can at present inform us, we came into being. And our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence or to force the destiny which fate has in store for our race.

PHILO

(1)        "So much in the surprising manner, so far as science can at present tell us we came into being".

QURAN

(a)        "Such is their sum of knowledge".

              (53x30)

(b)        "And of knowledge ye (human beings) have been vouchsafed but little".

  (17x85)

PHILO

(2)        " Our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence".

QURAN

"Like one bewildered whom the devils have infatuated in the earth".

  (6x71)

PHILO

(3)  "When we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the bewilderment is only increased".

QURAN

(a)        "Deemed ye then that We had created you for naught, and that ye would not be returned unto us".

  (23x 115)

(b)        "Have they not pondered upon themselves? Allah created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, save for truth and for a destined end. But truly many of mankind are disbelieves in the meeting with their Lord".

  (30x8)

(c)        "And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve, and woe unto those who disbelieve, form the fire".

  (38x27)

(d)        "We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between in play. If we had wished to find a pastime, We could have found it in our presence, if we ever did. Nay, but We hurl the true against the false, and it doth break its head and lo! It vanisheth. And yours will be woe for that which ye ascribe (unto him)".

  (21x16-18)

PHILO

(4)        "Our bewilderment is only increased, when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence".

QURAN

(a)        "Have they not observed all things that Allah hath created, how their shadows, incline to the right and to the left, making prostration unto Allah, and they are lowly. And unto Allah make the prostration whosoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth of living creatures, and the angels (also), and they are not proud. They fear their Lord above them, and do what they are bidden".

  (16x48-50)

(b)"The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein praise Him, and there is not a thing but Hymneth His praise, but ye understand not their praise. Lo! He is ever clement, forgiving".

  (17x44)

(c)        "There is none in the heavens and the earth but cometh unto the beneficent as a slave. Verily He knoweth them and numbereth them with right numbering".

  (19x93-94)

(d)        "Thinketh man that He is to be left aimless? Was he not a drop of fluid which gushed forth? Then He became a clot; then Allah shaped and fashioned, and made o him a pair the male and the female. Is not (who doeth so) able to bring the dead to life".

  (75x36-40)

 

(e)        " He (Allah) direceteth the ordinance from the heaven unto the earth; then it ascendeth unto Him in a day, whereof the measure is a thousand years of that ye reckon".

  (32x5)

(f)         "From Allah, Lord of the ascending stairway (whereby) the angels and the spirit ascend unto him in a day whereof the open is fifty thousand years".

  (70x3-4)

(d)        "Lo! in the creation of heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens(of His) sovereignty) for men of understanding, such as remember Allah standing, sitting and reclining, and consider the heaven and the earth( and say): Our Lord thou createdst not this in vain. Glory be to thee! Preserve us from the doom of fire. Our Lord! whom thou causest to enter the fire; him indeed hast thou confounded. For evil-doers there will be no helpers. Our Lord! Lo We have heard a crier calling unto faith: "Believe ye in your Lord! So we believed our Lord! Therefore forgive us our evil deeds, and make us die the death of the righteous. Our Lord! And give us that which thou hast promised to us by the messengers. Confound us not on the day of resurrection. Lo! thou breakest not thy trust".

  (3x1901-194)

PHILO

(5)        "Our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origin to an understanding of the purpose of our existence".

QURAN

(a)        "God hath created life and death that He may try you, which of you is best in conduct; and He is mighty, the forgiving".

  (67x2)

(b)        "Hath appointed darkness and light".

  (6x1)

(c)        "That He may reward those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good with goodness".

  (53x31)

(d)        "(God) has placed you as viceroys of the earth and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you, by (the set of) that which He hath given you".

  (6x165)

(e)        "Had Allah willed He could have made you one community. But that He may try you by threat which He hath given you He hath made you as ye are. So vie with one another in good return, and He will then inform you of that wherein ye differ".

  (5x48)

(f)         "Allah it is who raised up the heavens without visible supports, and mounted the throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to be of service, each runneth upto an appointed them; He ordaineth the course; He detaileth the revolutions, that haply ye may be certain of the meeting with your Lord".

  (13x2)

(g)        "And I have not created the Jinn and men except that they should worship me".

  (51x56)

(h)        "Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth, and the hills, but were afraid of it. And man assumed it, Lo1 He hath proved a tyrant and a fool".

  (33x72)

(i)         "Whose is removed from the fire and is made to enter paradise, he indeed is triumphant"".

  (3x185)

PHILO

(6)        "Our bewilderment is only increased when we pass from origins to the understanding of the purpose of our existence, or to foresee the destiny which fate has in store for our race".

PHILO

(7)        "Or the destiny which fate has in store for our race".

QURAN

(a)        "Everyone that is thereon will pass away. There remaineth but the countenance of thy Lord of might and glory".

  (55x26-27)

(b)        "The angel of death, who has charge concerning you, will gather you, and afterwards unto your Lord ye will be returned".

  (32x11)

(c)        "Every soul must taste of death, and We try you with evil and with good, for ordeal. And unto us ye will be returned".

  (21x35)

(d)        "And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and the earth swoon away, save him whom Allah willeth. Then it is blow a second time, and behold them standing waiting: And the earth shineth with the light of Her Lord, and the book is set up, and the prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged. And each soul is paid in full for what it did. And He is best aware of what they do. And those who disbelieve are driven unto hell in troops, till, when they reach it and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Came thee not unto you messengers of your own, reciting unto you the revelation of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of  this your day? They say: Yea, verily. But the word of doom for disbelievers is fulfilled. It is said (unto them) Enter yet the gates of hell t to dwell therein. Thus helpless is the journey's end of the scorners. And those who keep their duty to their Lord are driven unto the garden in troops till when they reach it, and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Ye are good, so enter ye (the a garden of delight), to dwell there in: they say: Praise be to Allah, who hath fulfilled His promise unto us and hath made us inherit the land, sojourning in the garden where we will! So beauteous is the wage of workers. And thou seest the angels thronging round the throne Hymning the praises of their Lord. And they are judged aright. And it is said: Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds".

  (39x68-75)

(e)        "And the dwellers of the garden cry unto the dwellers of the fire: We have found that which our Lord promised us (to be) truth. Have ye (too) found that which your Lord promised the truth? They say: Year, verily. And a crier in between them crieth: The curse of Allah is o evil doers, who debar (Men) from the path of Allah and wood have it crooked, and who are disbelievers in the last day".

  (7x44-45)

SECTION (ii) (s)

Life of the kind we know can only exist under suitable conditions of light and heat. We only exist ourselves because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun; upset the balance in either direction of excess or defect and life must disappear from the earth. And the essence of the situation is that the balance is very easily upset.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10)

After having done with the purpose of man's existence, the philosopher now moves to prove the fraitility of life and its inglorious end. Clearly has argument of the insignificance of life and its accidental nature continues to the end of life on earth. See how keenly he picks at every delicate point, yet how bluntly he ignores the other side. God's will, however, abounds in the word of the Quran. The laws of nature could not be depreciated, but as far as the question of the end of life on earth is concerned, science of the end of the life on earth is concerned, science perhaps will strain its eyes but will see little.

PHILO

Life of the kind we know can only exist under suitable conditions of light and heat. We only exist ourselves because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun; upset the balance in either direction of excess or defect and life must disappear from the earth. And the essence of the situation is that the balance is very easily upset.

PHILO

(1)        "Life of the kind we know can only exist under suitable conditions of light and heat".

QURAN

"This is the measuring of the mighty, the wise".

  (36x338)

PHILO

(2)        " We only exist ourselves because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun.

QURAN

(a)        "See ye not how Allah hath created seven heavens in harmony, and hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp? And Allah hath caused you to grow as a growth from the earth".

  (17x15-20)

(b)        "And of His portents are the night and the day, and he sun and the moon, adore not the sun nor the moon; but adore Allah who created them".

  (41x37)

PHILO

(3)        "" We only exist ourselves because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun.

QURAN

"O prophet! Look! We have sent thee as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And a summoner unto Allah by His permission, and as a lamp that giveth light".

  (33x45-46)

PHILO

(4)        We only exist ourselves because the earth receives exactly the right amount of radiation from the sun; upset the balance in either direction of excess or defect and life must disappear from the earth. And the essence of the situation is that the balance is very easily upset.

QURAN

(a)        "Lo! Allah graspeth the heavens and the earth that they deviate not, and if they were to deviate, there is not one that could grasp them after Him".

  (35x41)

(b)        " Hast thou not seen How Allah hath made all that is in the earth subservient unto you? and the ship runneth upon the sea by His command, and He beholdeth back the heaven from falling on the earth unless by His leave. Lo! Allah is, for mankind, full of pity, Merciful".

  (22x65)

(c)        "And we set a just balance for the day of resurrection so that no soul is wronged in aught. Though it be of the weight of a grain of mustard seed, We bring it. And we suffice for reckoners".

  (21x47)

(d)        "If Allah were to take mankind to task for their wrong doing, we would not leave hereon a living creature, but He reprieveth them to an appointed term, and when their term cometh they cannot put (it) off an hour, nor (yet) advance (it)".

  (16x61)

PHILO

(5)        "And the essence of the situation is, that the balance is easily upset".

QURAN

"The similititudes of the life of the world is only as water which we send down from the sky, then the earth's growth of that which men and a cattle eat mingleth with it till, when the earth hath taken on her armaments and is embellished, and her people deem that they are masters of her, our commandment cometh by night or by day and we make it as reaped corn as if it had not flourished yesterday. Thus do we expound revelations for people who reflect".

SECTION (ii) (t)

"Primitive man living in the temperate zone of the earth, must have watched he ice-age, descending on his home with something like terror; each year the glaciers came farther down into other valleys; each winter the sun seemed less able to provide the worth needed for life. To him as to us the universe must have seemed hostile to life.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10)       

This again is an example to prove the universe as hostile to life, and POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC the universe could not have been created for life. Read the views of the Quran on this point.

"Primitive man living in the temperate zone of the earth, must have watched he ice-age, descending on his home with something like terror; each year the glaciers came farther down into other valleys; each winter the sun seemed less able to provide the worth needed for life. To him as to us the universe must have seemed hostile to life.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10)

QURAN

(a)        "There are the people who have passed away. Their's is that which they have earned, and your's is that which ye earn. And ye will not be asked of what they used to do".

  (2x134)

(b)        " We know those among you who go before; and we know who stay behind. Thy Lord will gather them together on the day of judgement".

  (15x24-25)

SECTION (ii) (u)

We of these later days, living in the narrow temperate zone surrounding our sun and peering into other far future, see an ice-age of a different kind threatening us. Just as Tantalus standing in a lake so deep that he only just escaped drowning, was yet destined to die of thirst, so it is the tragedy of our race that it is probably destined to die, of cold, while the greater part of the substance of the universe still remains too hot for life to obtain a footing. The sun, having no extraneous supply of heat, must necessarily emit over less and less of its life-giving radiation, and as it does so, the temperate zone of space, within which alone life can exist, must closed in around it. To remain a possible abode of life, our earth would need to move in ever nearer and nearer to the dying sun. Yet, science tells us that, so far from its moving inwards inexorable dynamical laws are even now driving it, ever farther away from the sun into the outer cold and darkness. And, so far as we can see, they must continue to do so until life is frozen off the earth, unless indeed some celestial collision or cataclysm intervenes to destroy life even earlier by a more speedy death. This prospective fate is not peculiar to our earth, other suns must die like our own, and any life there may be an other planets must meet the same inglorious end.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10-11)

The philosopher compares the anticipated heat-death of universe to the ice-deluge of the ancient times. The facts of science cited might appear quite sound, yet it is a question which is very difficult to answer. Allah alone could know the fact. Sir James Jeans wrote these words in 1930. In 1945 that is within a period of mere 15 years, a kind of a deluge appeared to threaten the existence of life on earth that out shadowed the view of heat-death. Every one knows the nature of this deluge. This is the deluge of atomic fire that may consume this mankind any moment and would spare no one. The Quran has predicted, described and characterized this deluged and assigned causes to its appearance. Tantalus is a figure of Greek myth. He is said to have been condemned to remain throat-deep in a lake, with fruit -trees over-handing; but so often as he stretched his hand, the branches rose higher, and when he stooped to drink, the water sank lower and lower .The point of interest is that the Quran has described a Tantalus to the amazement of mankind. My misfortune in this age of knowledge is that I have to tell everybody, everytime, that all these discoveries from the Quran are my won, by the Grace of Almighty Allah and known to none else. Read, however, what the Quran has to say to the philosopher.

We of these later days, living in the narrow temperate zone surrounding our sun and peering into other far future, see an ice-age of a different kind threatening us. Just as Tantalus standing in a lake so deep that he only just escaped drowning, was yet destined to die of thirst, so it is the tragedy of our race that it is probably destined to die, of cold, while the greater part of the substance of the universe still remains too hot for life to obtain a footing. The sun, having no extraneous supply of heat, must necessarily emit over less and less of its life-giving radiation, and as it does so, the temperate zone of space, within which alone life can exist, must closed in around it. To remain a possible abode of life, our earth would need to move in ever nearer and nearer to the dying sun. Yet, science tells us that, so far from its moving inwards inexorable dynamical laws are even now driving it, ever farther away from the sun into the outer cold and darkness. And, so far as we can see, they must continue to do so until life is frozen off the earth, unless indeed some celestial collision or cataclysm intervenes to destroy life even earlier by a more speedy death. This prospective fate is not peculiar to our earth, other suns must die like our own, and any life there may be an other planets must meet the same inglorious end.

PHILO

(1)        "We of these later days, living in the narrow temperate zone surrounding our sun and peering into other far future, see an ice-age of a different kind threatening us.

PHILO

(2)        "Peeping into the far future".

QURAN

"Lo! they behold it after off, while we behold it night".

  (70x6-7)

PHILO

(3)        "We see an ice-age of a different kind threatening us".

QURAN

(a)        "Nay, but verily they will be cast into Al-Hotama (the atomic hell)".

                          (104x4)

"Woe unto every back-biter, defamer who amasseth wealth (of this world) and arrangeth it (against the future) He thinketh that his wealth will render him immortal. Nay, but verily he will be flung into Al-Hotama. And what could teach thee what Al-Hotama is? It is fire of Allah kindled which leapeth up onto the hearts. It is (a fire) closed in on them in outstretched columns"(24-a).

  (104x1-9)

------------------------------------------------------------

(24-a) A logical end of continuos, systematic, and infinite process of wealth accumulation resulting from the philosophy of Baconian atomism

--------------------------------------------------------

(b)        "When their apostles came unto them with evident proofs (of their mission and God's sovereignty), they rejoiced in the knowledge which was with the, but that which they mocked at encompassed them".

  (40x83)

PHILO

(4)        " Just as Tantalus (25) standing in a lake so deep that he only just escaped downing, was yet destined to die of thirst, so it is the tragedy of our race".

PHILO

(5)        "Tantalus".

QURAN

"One who stretcheth forth his hands towards water (asking) that it may come unto his mouth, and it will never reach it".

  (13x14)

----------------------------------------------------------

25. Tantalus is a figure of Greek Mythology. He is fabled a son of Zeus condemned in Tartarus t to stand up to chin in water, branches of fruit trees hanging over his head. But so often as he would stoop to quench his thirst, the water would recede, and whenever he stretched his hand upwards towards the fruits, the branch should rise higher and higher away from him. But wonder how accurately the Quran has defined tantalus.

----------------------------------------------- 

"Unto Allah is the real prayer. Those unto whom they pray besides Allah respond to them not at all, save as (is the response to) one who stretcheth forth his hands towards water (asking) that it may come unto his mouth, and it will never reach it. The pray of disbelievers goeth far astray".

  (13x14)

PHILO

(6)        "Celestial collision and cataclysm".

QURAN

(a)        "When the earth will be shaken by an earthquake; and the earth shall cast forth its burdens; and a ma shall say, what aileth her? On that day (the earth) shall declare her tidings, for thy Lord will inspire her".

  (99x1-8)

(b)        "When the incident befalleth. There is no denying that it will befall .Abasing (some) , exalting (others); when the earth is shaken with shock, and the hills are ground to powder, so that they become scattered dust; and ye will be three kinds".

(56x1-7)

(c)        "And when the trumpet shall sound one blast and the earth with the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash. Then on that day the event will befall. And the heaven will split as asunder, for that day it will be frail".

  (69x13-37)

(d)        "And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and the earth swoon away, save him whom Allah willeth. Then it is blown second time, and behold them standing waiting! And the earth, shineth with the light of Her Lord, and the book is set up".

  (39x68-69)

SECTION (ii) (v)        

Physics tells the same story, as Astronomy, for independently of all astronomical considerations the general physical principle known as the second law of thermodynamics predicts that there can be but one end, to the universe- a "Heat Death" in which the total energy of the universe is uniformly distributed, and all the substance of the universe is at the same temperature. This temperature is going to be so low as to make life impossible. It matters little by what particular road this final state is reached; all roads lead to Rome, and the end of the journey cannot be other than universal death.

(The Mysterious Universe page 11)

Whether through heat-death or in some other way, the end of life on earth is certain. The thing which matters is the intent behind the argument of the philosopher, and the style of Quran's answer.

PHILO

Physics tells the same story, as Astronomy, for independently of all astronomical considerations the general physical principle known as the second law of thermodynamics predicts that there can be but one end, to the universe- a "Heat Death" in which the total energy of the universe is uniformly distributed, and all the substance of the universe is at the same temperature. This temperature is going to be so low as to make life impossible. It matters little by what particular road this final state is reached; all roads lead to Rome, and the end of the journey cannot be other than universal death.

(The Mysterious Universe page 11)

PHILO

(1)        "Heat death".

QURAN

"When the sun shall be folded up, and when the stars shall fall, and when the mountains shall be made to pass away".

  (81x1-22)

PHILO

(2)        "It matters little by what particular road this final state is reached; all roads lead to Rome, and the end of the journey cannot be other than universal death.

QURAN

"Every one that is thereon will pass away; there remaineth but the countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory"

  (55x26-27)

SECTION (ii) (w)

Is this, then, all that life amounts to --- to stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life, and which, to all appearance, is either totally indifference or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging onto a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration, and that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been?

(The Mysterious Universe page 11-12)

The description of life by the philosopher is most correct. But it has to be discerned that he has assumed the end of life on earth as final without any illusion to resurrection. But according to the Quran resurrection is a certainty. Achievements thus will not perish with the end of life on earth, as the philosopher has assumed, but rather the deeds will be rewarded on the day of judgment-after which an eternal life will begin.

"Is this, then, all that life amounts to --- to stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life, and which, to all appearance, is either totally indifference or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging onto a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration, and that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been?".

PHILO

(1)        "Is then, all the life amounts to".

QURAN

(a)        Know ye that this world's life is only a sport, and pastime, and show, and a cause of vainglory among you! and the multiplying of riches and children is like the plants which spring up after rain----Their growth rejoiceth the husband man, then they wither away, and thou seest themall yellow; then they become dry stumble. And in the next life is a severe chastisement, or else pardon from God and His satisfaction, and this world's life is but a cheating fruition. Vie in hasting after pardon from your Lord, and paradise-whose outspread is as the outspread of the heaven and of the earth" prepared is it for those who believe in God and His apostles: Such is the bounty of God".

  (57x20-21)

(b)        "Give good tidings unto those who believe and do good works, that theirs are gardens, uderneath which rivers flow......there for ever they abide".

  (2x25)

(c)        " But they who disbelieve, and deny our relations, such are rightful owners of fire. They will abide therein (for ever),

  (2x39)

PHILO

(2)        "To stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life, and which, to all appearance, is either totally indifference or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging onto a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage".

QURAN

(a)        "On the day when the hour riseth, the guilty will vow they did tarry but an hour- thus were they deceived. But those to whom knowledge and faith are given will say: the truth is ye have tarried but Allah's decree, until the day of resurrection, but ye used not to know".

  (30x55-56)

(b)        " (God) will say: How long tarried ye in the earth, counting by years? They will say: We tried but a day or a day or a part of a day. Ask of those who keep count! (God) will say: Ye tarried but a little if ye only knew".

  (23x112-114)

PHILO

(3)        "Toto strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration.

QURAN

"This world's life is but a cheating fruition, vie in hasting after pardon from your Lord; and paradise-whose out-spread is as the outspread of the heavens and the earth. Prepared is it for those who believe in God and His apostles. Such is the bounty of God". (Quran 57x20-21)

PHILO

(4)        "And that our achievements must perish with our race".

QURAN

(a)        "Shall we inform you who will be the greatest losers by their works? Those whose effort goeth astray in the life of the world, and yet they reckon that they do good works. Those are they who disbelieve in the revelations of their Lord and in the meeting with Him. Therefore their works are in vain, and on the day of resurrection We assign no weight to them. That is their reward: Hell, because they disbelieved, and made a jest of our messengers".

  (18x103-106)

(b)        "A similitude of those who disbelieve in their Lord. Their works are as ashes which the wind bloweth hard upon a stormy day. They have no control of aught that they have earned. That is the extreme failure".

  (14x18)

(c)        "Lo! Those who expect not the meeting with Us, but desire the life of the world and feel secure therein, and those who are neglectful of Our revelations, their home will be the fire because of what they used to earn".

  (10x7-8)

(d)        "But (as for) those who believe and do good works--We tax not any soul beyond its scope-such are rightful owners of the garden (in the next world)".

  (7x42)

(e)        "Those who believe and do right: Joy is for them, and bliss (their) journey's end".

  (13x29)

PHILO

(5)        "And that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been".

QURAN

(a)        "They say : (There) is no (Other life), except our present life: We die and we live; and nothing but time destroyeth us. But they have no knowledge in this (matter) ; they only follow a (vain) opinion. And when our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, their argument (which they offer against the same) is no other than that they say: bring to life our fathers (who have been dead); if ye speak truth. Say: God giveth you life; and afterwards causeth you to die; hereafter will He assemble you, together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt thereof; but the greater part of men do not understand".

  (45x24-26)

(b)        " And when the trumpet shall sound one blast, and the earth with the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash.  Then, on that day will the event befall. And the heaven will split as under, for that day it will be frail. And the angels will be on the sides thereof, and eight will uphold the throne of their lord that day, above them. On that day ye will be exposed; as for him who is given his record in his right hand; he will say: Take, read my book! Surely I knew that I should have to meet my reckoning. Then he will be in a blissful state. In high garden whereof the clusters are in easy reach. (And it will be said unto those therein eat and drink at lease for that which ye sent on before you in past days. But as for him who is given his record in left hand, he will say: Oh, would that I had not been given my book, and knew not what my reckoning! oh would that it had been death! My wealth hath not availed me, y power hath gone from me, (it will be said) take him and fetter hi, and then expose him to hell-fire, and then insert him in a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits. Lo! He used not to believe in Allah; the tremendous, and urged not on the feeding of the wretched. Therefore, hath he no lover here this day. Nor any old save filth, which none but sinners eat".

  (69x13-37)

PHILO

(6)        "As thought we had never been".

QURAN

"A terrible noise (from heaven) assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses, lying (dead and) prostrate, “as though they had never dwelt therein". Did not thamud disbelieve in their lord Was not Tahamud (cast) far away".

  (11x67-68)

PHILO

(7)        " As though we had never been".

QURAN

(a)        " A terrible noise (from heaven) assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their hoses lying (dead and) prostrate, "as though they had never dwelt therein". Was not median removed from the earth as Thamud had been removed 26".

--------------------------------------------------------------

26. A blinding heat-flash and a terrible blast assailed them from heaven and those who had sought dominion over nature as God's for martial benefit were found with their bodies burned and mangled in heaps under the hails of atomic bombs. This might be the report of a survior of the atomic holocaust.

---------------------------------------------------------------

(b)        "Allah will raise those who are in the graves (26-a)".

              (22x7)

(c)        "And Allah made them (wrong-doers) taste humiliation in the life of the world, and verily the doom of the hereafter will be greater if they did but know".     

(d)        "O man what hath misled thee against thy generous Lord who created thee and moulded thee and shaped thee aright? In the form which pleased Him hath He fashioned thee. Even so; but they treat the judgments a lie. Yet truly there are guardians, over your-illustrious recorders-cognizant of your actions surely amid delights (shall) the righteous (dwell), but verily the impure in hell-fire, they shall be burned at on the day of doom, and they shall not be able to hide themselves from it. Who shall teach thee what the day of doom, is? Once more. Who shall teach thee what the day of doom is> It is a day when one soul shall be powerless for another soul: All sovereignty on that day shall be with God".

  (82x6-19)

-------------------------------------------------------

(26-a) The statement of the philosopher purports final finish of life on earth without any further development. The Quran apprises him of the events after death. Raising of the dead and judgment. Reward and punishment.

-----------------------------------------------------------       

PHILO

(8)        "As though we had never been".

QURAN

(a)        " The similitude of the little of the world is only as water which we send down from the sky, then the earth's growth of that which men and cattle eat mingleth with it till, when the earth hath taken her ornaments and is embellished, and her people deem that they are masters of her, or commandment cometh by night or by day and we make it as reaped corn as if it had not flourished yesterday.  Thus do we expound the revelations for people who reflect".

  (10x24)

(b)        "Allah will raise the dead who are in the graves".

  (22x7)

SECTION (ii) (x)

“Astronomy suggests the question, but it is, I think, mainly to physics that we must turn for an answer. For Astronomy can tell us of the present arrangement of the universe, of the vastness and vacuity of space, and of our own insignificance therein, it can even tell us some thing as to the nature f the changes produced by the passage of time. But we must probe deep into the fundamental nature of things before we can expect to find the answer to our question. And this is not the province of Astronomy, rather we shall find that our quest takes us right into the heart of modern physical science".

  (The Mysterious Universe page 12)

Neither astronomy, nor the physical science could be expected to give the answer to such a question with any exactitude, certitude or variety. Let men rather prepare themselves for that which is after the end of this life. Let t the scientists now forget about this life every thing except the atomic hell. Let them try to control the atomic fire and save this world if they can. Theoretically they make guesses at the manner of the final end of life on earth in a space of millions of years, and practically they built atomic bombs and missiles.

PHILO

Astronomy suggests the question, but it is, I think, mainly to physics that we must turn for an answer. For Astronomy can tell us of the present arrangement of the universe, of the vastness and vacuity of space, and of our own insignificance therein, it can even tell us some thing as to the nature f the changes produced by the passage of time. But we must probe deep into the fundamental nature of things before we can expect to find the answer to our question. And this is not the province of Astronomy, rather we shall find that our quest takes us right into the heart of modern physical science".

  (The Mysterious Universe page 12)

PHILO

(1)        "Astronomy suggests the question, but it is, I think, mainly to physics that we must turn for an answer. (About the end of life on earth).

QURAN

(a)        "This Quran guideth unto that which is straightest".

  (17x9)

(b)        " Relation of the wise scripture. A guidance and a mercy for the good".

  (31x2-3)

PHILO

(2)        "For astronomy can tell us of the present arrangement of the universe of the vastness and vacuity of space, and our own insignificance therein; it can tell us something as to the acute of the changes produced by the passage of time".

QURAN

(a)        "By the (passage of ) time, verily man is in a state of loss, except those who believe, and do that which is right, and (who) mutually recommend the truth, and mutually recommend perseverance unto each other".

  (103x1-3)

(b)        "Verily we have coined for mankind in this Quran all kinds of similitude that haply they may reflect".

  (39x27)

PHILO

(3)        "But we must probe deep into the fundamental nature of things before we can expect to find the answer to our question". (About the end of life on earth)

QURAN

(a)        " Consider whatever is in heaven and on the earth. But signs are of no avail, neither preachers unto people who will not believe".

  (10x101)

(b)        " Have they not considered the dominion of the heavens and the earth and what things Allah hath created, and that it may be that their own end draweth nigh. In what fact after this they will believe?".

  (7x185)

PHILO

(4)        "And this is not the province of astronomy; rather we shall find that our quest takes us right into the heart of modern physical science".

QURAN

(a)        " Of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little".

  (17x85)

(b)        "Will they not meditate on the Quran. Or are there locks on their hearts?".

  (47x 24)

(c)        "This is a blessed scripture which we have revealed. So follow it and ward off (evil) that ye may find mercy".

  (6x155)

PHILO

(5)        "Rather we shall find that our quest takes us right into the heart of modern physical science to find the answer to our question (about the end of life on earth)".

QURAN

(a)        " Lo! Allah! With Him is the knowledge of the hour".

  (31x34)

(b)        "Unto Him is refereed (all) knowledge of the hour".

              (41x47)

(c)        "Lo the hour is surely coming, but I will to keep it hidden".

              (20x15)

(d)        " The calamity! What is the calamity? Ah, what will convey unto thee what the calamity is! A day wherein mankind will be as thickly scattered moths. And the moutons shall become like flocks of carded wool of various colours (26-b)".

  (101x1-5)

------------------------------------------------------------

(26-b) It means that science has no decisive answer neither to the beginning nor to the end of life. And as to the purpose of man's existence it is dumb. To things spiritual or to the maters after death it is completely insensible.

SECTION-(ii) (y)

The Philosopher recants his former views before the Quran:-

Philosopher's former views:-

"Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand, we attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe which surrounds our home in space, and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror. We find the universe terrifying because of its fast meaningless distances, terrifying because of its inconceivable long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of its inconceivably long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of our existence loneliness, and because of the material insignificance of our home in space --- a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world.

(The Mysteries Universe page 2-3)

PHILO’S CORRECTED VIEWS

(1)        It is probably unnecessary to add that, on this view of things, the apparent vastness and emptiness of the universe, and our own insignificant size there-in, need cause us neither bewilderment nor concern. We are not terrified by the sizes of the structures which our own thoughts create, nor by those that others imagine and describe to us. In DUMAURIER’S story, PETER IBBESTON ad the DUCHESS of towers continued to build vast dream places and dream gardens of ever-increasing size, but felt no terror at the size of their mental creations. The immensity of the universe becomes a matter of satisfaction rather than awe, we are citizens of no mean city. Again, we need not puzzle over the finitness of space. We fell no curiosity as to what lies beyond the four walls which bound, our vision in a dream”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 131-32)

QURAN

(a)        ‘ Peace be upon you! Your Lord hath laid down for himself a law of mercy; so that if anyone of you commit a fault through ignorance, and afterwards turn and amend, He surely will be gracious, merciful”.

            (6x54)

PHILO

(2)        “It is the same with time, which like space, we must think of as of finite extent. As we trace the stream of time backwards, we encounter many indications that, after a long enough journey, we must come to its source, a time before which the present universe did not exist. Nature frowns upon perpetual motion machines, and it is a priori very unlikely that her universe will provide an example, on the grand scale, of the mechanism, she abhor. Add a detailed consideration of nature confirms this. The he science of thermodynamics explains how every thing in nature passes to its final state by a process which is designated the increase of entropy. Entropy must for ever increase, it cannot standstill until it has increased so far that it can increase no further. When this stage is reached, further progress will be impossible, and the universe will be dead. Thus, unless this whole branch of science is wrong, nature perform its herself, quite literally only two alternatives, progress and death, the only standing still she permits is in the stillness of grave”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 132)

QURAN

“He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth .He maketh night to succeed day, and He maketh day to succeed night, and He constraineth the sun and the moon to give service, each running for an appointed term. Is not He the Mighty, the Forgiver”.

            (39x5)

SECTION (ii) (z)

THE PHILO’S FORMER VIEWS AND HIS ALTERED VIEWS

(1)PHILO’S FORMER VIEWS:-

(a)

“”Standing on our microscopic fragment of a grain of sand, we attempt to discover the nature and purpose of the universe which surrounds our home in space, and time. Our first impression is something akin to terror. We find the universe terrifying because of its fast meaningless distances, terrifying because of its inconceivable long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of its inconceivably long vistas of time which dwarf human history to the twinkling of an eye, terrifying because of our existence loneliness, and because of the material insignificance of our home in space --- a millionth part of a grain of sand out of all the sea-sand in the world. But above all else we find the universe terrifying, because it appears to be indifferent to life like our own; emotion, ambition and achievement, art and religion all seem equally foreign to its plan. Perhaps indeed we ought to say it appears to be actually hostile to life like our own For the most part, empty space is so cold that all life in it would be frozen, most of the matter in space is so hot as to make life on it impossible, space is traversed, and astronomical bodies continually bombarded by radiation of a variety of kinds, much of which is inimical to, or even destructive of life”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 3)

(b)        Into such a universe we have stumbled, if not exactly by mistake, at least as a result of what may properly be described as an accident

(The Mysterious Universe page 3)         

(c)        It seems incredible that the universe can have been designed primarily to produce life like our won; had been so surely we might have expected to find a better proportion between the magnitude of the mechanism and the amount of the product.

(The Mysterious Universe page 5)

(d)        If however we dismiss every trace of anthropomorphism from our minds there remains no reason for supposing that the present laws were specially selected in order to produce life. They are just as likely, for instance, to have been selected in order to produce magnetism or radioactivity indeed more likely, since to all appearance physics plays an incomparably greater part in the universe than Biology. Viewed from a strictly material stand-point, the utter insignificance of life would seem to go far towards dispelling any idea that it forms a special interest of the great architect of the Universe.

(The Mysterious Universe page 9)

(e)        An un-imaginative sailor accustomed to tying knots might think it would be impossible to cross the ocean if tying knots were impossible. Now the capacity for tying knots is limited to space of three dimensions, no knot can be tied in a space of 1; 2; 4; 5 or any other number of dimensions. From this fact our unimaginative sailor might reason that a beneficent Creator must have had sailors under his special patronage; and have chosen that space should have three dimensions in order that tying knots and crossing the ocean should be possibilities in the universe he had created ---in brief space was of three dimensions, so that there could be sailors.

(The Mysterious Universe page 9)

(f)         Our bewilderment is only increased when we attempt to pass from our origins to an understanding of the purpose of our existence or to force the destiny which fate has in store for our race.

(The Mysterious Universe page 10)       

(g)        Is this, then, all that life amounts to --- to stumble, almost by mistake, into a universe which was clearly not designed for life, and which, to all appearance, is either totally indifference or definitely hostile to it, to stay clinging onto a fragment of a grain of sand until we are frozen off, to strut our tiny hour on our tiny stage with the knowledge that our aspirations are all doomed to final frustration, and that our achievements must perish with our race, leaving the universe as though we had never been?

(The Mysterious Universe page 11-12)

(2) PHILO’S REVELATIONS CONFESSIONS COMPLAINTS DISAPPOINTMENTS AND HIS CONCLUSION

REVELATION OF THE PHILO:-

“The essential fact is simply that (all) the pictures which science now draws of nature, and which alone seem capable of according with observational fact, are mathematical pictures. Most scientists would agree that they are nothing more than pictures ------fictions if you like, if by fiction you mean that science is not yet in contact with ultimate reality. Many would hold that, from the broad philosophical standpoint the outstanding achievement of twentieth-century physics is a not the theory of relativity with its welding together of space and time, or the theory of quanta with its present apparent generation of the laws of causation, or the dissection f the atom with the resultant discovery that things are not what they seem; it is the general recognition that we are not yet in contact with ultimate reality. To speak in terms of Plato’s well known simile, we are still imprisoned in our cave, with our backs to the light, and can only watch the shadows on the wall.
            (The Mysterious universe page 111)

QURAN

“Of knowledge ye (O Humans) have bee vouchsafed but little”.

            (17X85)

CONFESSION OF THE PHILOSOPHER

            “When we try to discover the nature of the reality behind the shadows, we are confronted with the fact that all discussion of the ultimate nature of things must necessarily be barren unless we are some extraneous standards against which to compare them. For this reason, to borrow Locks’s phrase “ the real essence of substances” is for ever UNKNOWABLE, We can only progress by discussing the laws which govern the changes of substances, and so produce the phenomena of the external world. Those we can compare with the abstract creations of our own minds”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 114-115)

QURAN

“The spirit is by common of my Lord, and of knowledge ye (O Humans) have been vouchsafed but little”.

            (17x85)

COMPLAINT OF THE PHILOSOPHER

            “A hundred years ago, when scientists were trying to interpret the world mechanically no wise man came forward to an assure them that the mechanical view was found to prove a misfit in the end- that the phenomena universe would never make sense until it was projected on to a screen of pure mathematics; had they brought forward a convincing argument to this effect, science might have been saved much fruitless labour. If the philosopher now says” What you have found is nothing new: I could have told you that it must be so all the time; the scientist may reasonably inquire “Why, then, did you not tell us so, when we should have found the information of real value?”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 117)

QURAN

(a)        “And when their messengers brought them clear proofs, they exulted in their knowledge they (themselves) possessed. And that which they were wont to mock befell them. Then, when they saw our doom, they said: We believe in Allah only and reject (all) that we used to associate (with him. But their faith could not avail them when they saw our doom. This is Allah’s law which hath ever taken course for His bondsmen. And then the disbelieves will be ruined”.

            (40x83-85)

(b)        “And when our revelations are recited unto him he turneth away in his pride as if he heard them not, as if there were a deafness in his ears. So give him tidings of a painful doom”.

            (31x6-7)

(c)        “And who erreth more widely (from the truth) that he who followeth his own desire, without a direction from God? Verily God directeth not the unjust people”.

(28x48-50)

(d)        “And this is a blessed scripture (Quran) which we have revealed. So follow it award off evil, that ye might find mercy. Lest ye should say: The scripture say: The scripture was revealed only to two sects therefore us, and we in sooth were unaware of what they read. Or least ye should say: If the scripture had been revealed unto us, we surely had been better guided than are they: Now surely hath there come unto you a clear proof from your Lord, a guidance and a mercy; and who doeth greater wrong than he who denieth the revelations of Allah, and turneth away from them? We award unto those who turn away from our revelations an evil doom because of their aversion .Wait they, indeed for nothing less than that the angels should come unto them, or the Lord should come, or threshold come one of the portents from thy Lord? In the day when one of the portents of Thy Lord cometh, its belief availeth not a soul which therefore believed not, nor in its belief earned good (by works). Say: Wait ye! Lo! We (too) are waiting”.

            (6x155-158)

(e)        “Woe unto every backbiter, defamer, who amasseth wealth (of this world) and arrangeth it (against the future).He thinketh that his wealth will render him immortal. Nay, for verily he will be cast into Al-Hotama (the atomic hell) .And what could teach thee what Allah-Hotama is? It is fire of Allah kindled which leapeth up onto the hearts. It is (a fire) closed in on them in outstretched columns”.

            (104x1-9)

DISAPPOINTMENTS OF THE PHILOSOPHER

“It is too often overlooked that we can only discuss these questions in terms of probabilities. The man of science is accustomed to the reproach that he changes his views all the time, with the accompanying implication that what he says need not be taken too seriously. It is no true reproach that in exploring the river of knowledge, he occasionally goes down a back-water instead of continuing along the main stream; no explorer can be sure that a backbiters is such, and nothing more, until he has been down it. What is more serious, and beyond the control of the explorer, is that the river is a winding one, flowing now east now west. At one moment the explorer says. "I am going down stream, and as I am going towards the west, the ocean which is reality seems most likely to lie in the westerly direction”. And later, when the river has turned east, he says "It now looks as though reality is in the east”. Mo scientist who has lived through the last thirty years is likely to be too dogmatic either as to the future course of the stream or as to the direction in which reality lies; he knows from his own experience how the river not only for refer broadens but also repeatedly winds, and after many disappointments, he has given us thinking at every turn that he is at last in the presence of the “Murmurs and scents of the infinities”.

            With this caution in mind, it seems at least safe to say that the river of knowledge has made a sharp bend in the last few years”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 135-136)

QRUAN

“This Quran guideth unto that which is straightest”.

            (17x9)

PHILOSOPHER’S CONCLUSION:- CONFESSIONS ND PRONOUNCEMENT:-           

“Thirty years ago (27) we thought or assumed, that we were heading towards as ultimate reality of a mechanical kind. It seemed to consist of a fortuitous jumble of atoms, which was destined to perform meaningless dances for a time under the action of blind purposeless forces, and then fall back to form a dead world. Into this wholly mechanical world through the play of the same blind forces, life had stumbled by accident. One tiny corner at least, and possibly several tiny corners of this universe of atoms had changed to become conscious for a time,(28) but was destined in the end, still under the action of blind mechanical forces, to be foreseen out, and again leave a lifeless world.

            Today there is a wide measure of agreement, which on the physical side of science approaches almost to unanimity, that the stream of knowledge is heading towards a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins too look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears as an accidental intruder into the realm of matter; we are beginning to suspect that we ought rather to hail it as the creator and the governor of the realm of matter-not of course our individual minds, but the mind in which the atoms out of which our individual minds have grown exist as thoughts.

            The new knowledge compels us to revise our hasty first impressions that we had stumbled into a universe which either did not concern itself with life or was actively hostile to life. The old dualism of mind and matter, which was mainly responsible for the supposed hostility, seems likely to disappear, not through matter becoming in any way more shadowy or insubstantial than heretofore, or through mind becoming resolved into a function of the working of matter, but through substantial matter resolving itself into a creation and manifestation of mind. We discover that the universe shows evidence of designing or controlling power that has something in common with our own individual minds---not, so far as we have discovered emotion, morality, or aesthetic appreciation, but tendency to think in the way which for the want of a better word, we describe as mathematical. And while much in it may be hostile to the material appendages of life, much also is akin to the fundamental activities of life; we are not so much strangers or intruders in the universe as we at first thought. Those inert atoms in the primeval slime which first began to overshadow the attributes of life were putting themselves more and not less, in accord with the fundamental nature of the universe.

            So at least we are tempted to conjecture today, and yet who knows how many more times the stream of knowledge may turn on it self? And with this reflection before us, we may well concluded by adding, what might well have been interlined into every paragraph, that every thing that has-been said, and every conclusion that has  been tentatively put forward, is quite frankly speculative and uncertain. We have tried whether present day science has anything to say on certain difficult questions, which are perhaps set for ever beyond the reach of human understanding. We cannot claim to have discerned more than a very faint glimmer of light at the best, perhaps it was wholly illusory, for certainly We had to strain our eyes every hard to see any thing all. So that our man contention can hardly be, that the science to day has a pronouncement to make, perhaps it ought rather to be that science should leave off making pronouncements; t he river of knowledge has too often turned back on itself”.

            (The Mysterious Universe page 136-138)

QURAN

(a)        “They are like one who kindleth afire(29) and when it hath thrown its light on all around him........God taketh away their light ndleaveth them in darkness-they cannot see---deaf, dumb, blind: Therefore they shall not retrace their steps (former error); for like (those who when there cometh a storm cloud out of the heaven, big with darkness, thunder and lightening, thrust their fingers into their ears because of the thunderclap, for fear of death! God is round about the infidels. The lightening almost snatcheth away their eyes. So oft as it glaeameth at them they walk on in it, but when darkness closeth upon them, they stop! and if God pleased, of their ears and of their eyes would He surely deprive them---verily God is Al-Mighty, O, man adore your Lord, who hath created you and those who were before you. Haply ye will fear Him”.

            (2x17-21)

(b)        “And they have no knowledge hereof. They follow but agues. And Lo! a guess can never take the place of truth”.

            (53x28)

(c)        “As for those who strive in, Us, We may surely, guide them to our paths, and Lo! Allah is with the e good”.

            (29x69)

(d)        “ A.L.M. This is a scripture where of there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil)”.

            (2x1-2)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

27; This is in 1900

----------------------------------------

28. Like the stone of that becomes conscious suddenly in its flight in air. The Philo, however, has linked consciousness and life, and death and insensibility together.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

29 You have read the narrative of Sir Jeans about the ever-changing course of the research in modern science. Read Now Quran’s description of it and see if a better one could be expected.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER VII

THE SIMILE OF THE QURAN VERSUS PLATO’S SIMILE OF THE CAVE.

Plato's Simile

On the page of the Mysterious Universe is found quoted with much appropriateness to the topic of that book, the world-famous and history-honoured simile, namely, "Plato's simile of the Cave". I wondered if the Quran also contained a counterpart of that beautiful simile.

            The Quran has never disappointed me in such matters. In the following I quote Plato's simile of the cave, and thereafter its counterpart by the Quran.

 

PLATO'S SIMILE:-

"And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or un-enlightened.

Behold human beings living in an underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here the have been from their childhood and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets. Thus he said: how could they see anything but the shadows if they wee never allowed to move their heads? And of the objects which are being carried in the like manner they would only see the shadows? Yes, he said, To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the image".

            (Plato Republic Book-VII)

  "Human beings living in an underground cave which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here they have been from their childhood and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before the, being prevented by chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players, have in front of them, over which they show the puppets".

            Now the descriptive part of the Quran's simile which we will hereafter quote in full:-

"We have put yokes on their necks, and they are forced to hold up their heads: and we have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and thus have covered them with darkness, wherefore they shall not see".

            (Quran Chapter 36.Y.S.)

Both these similes are almost identical in their descriptive parts. Full text of the simile of the Quran is as follows:-

"Y.S. (I swear) by the instructive Quran that thou art (one) of the messengers (of Allah sent to show) the right way. This is a revelation of most mighty, the merciful Allah that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned and who live in negligence. (Our) sentence has justly been pronounced against a greater part of them, wherefore they shall not believe. We have put yoken on their necks, which (come) upto their chins, and they are forced to hold up their heads; and we have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and thus have covered them with darkness, wherefore they shall not see. It shall be equal unto them whether thou preach unto them, or do not preach unto them, they shall not believe. But thou shalt preach (with effect) unto him only who followeth the admonition, and feareth the merciful in secret. Wherefore bear good tidings unto him of mercy and honourable reward. Lo. We it is who bring the dead to life. We record that which they send before (them) and their footprints. And all things we kept in a clear registrar".

            (Quran 36 +1 to 12)

PLATO:

"And now, I said, let me show in a figure, how for our nature is enlightened our unenlightened".

QURAN

"Y.S. (I swear) by the instructive Quran that thou (O Mohammed) art (one) of the messengers (of Allah) sent (to show) the right way. This is a revelation of the most mighty, the merciful Allah".

PLATO

"Behold, Human beings living in an underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here they have been from their childhood".

QURAN

"That thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned and who live in negligence. (Our) sentence hath justly been pronounced against a greater part of them wherefore they shall not believe".

PLATO

"And have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads".

QURAN

"We have put yokes on their necks which (come) upto (their) chins, and they are forced to hold up their hands".

 

PLATO

"Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets".

QURAN

"And we have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and (thus) have covered them with darkness wherefore they shall not see".

PLATO

"To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the image'.

QURAN

"It shall be equal unto them, whether thou preach unto them, or do not preach unto them, they shall not believe". But thou shalt preach (with effect) unto him only who followeth the admonition and feareth the merciful in secret".

            Plato has assayed the intellectual level of mankind regarding their ability in comprehending the ultimate reality, whereas the Quran has alluded to their ability to accept faith, although the ability of accepting faith may also be taken to man the ability to judge the ultimate reality, for faith itself is the truth of ultimate reality. Plato has shown no exception, and has judged them all appropriately quite unable to know anything but shadows, as the nature of his topic implied. The Quran has shown exceptions although some of them may not be endowed with the quality to accept faith, yet some there are. There seems to be difference of application only between the view expressed by Plato, and that by the Quran. In the last resort indeed man's knowledge we even of the most certain kind is only a shadow of the true reality. A reality which will appear to man only after he has expired and is outside this walled fortress of material body, this cave. Great indeed is the Quran and marvelous. Never in a book so much knowledge was found packed in so few pages. The best answers to the modern complex problems of humanity could be had from this book, the Quran. And now before we bring our discussion of the unscientific philosophy of the scientist to a close, we consider it our duty to warn that such a philosophy shall surely, work the destruction of science, and indeed much sooner than generally is expected, and that of mankind along with it.

            Prefixed to the mysterious Universe of Sir James Jeans ------ and indeed with remarkable propriety -----is Plato’s famous simile of the cave. My discovery of a similar simile in the Quran came with a real surprise to me, and it appeared to constitute a remarkable point to establish Quran’s claim further to all-pervasive universality. Following is the simile of Plato:-

PLATO'S SIMILE:-

"And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or un-enlightened.

            Behold human beings living in an underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here the have been from their childhood and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets. Thus he said: how could they see anything but the shadows if they wee never allowed to move their heads? And of the objects which are being carried in the like manner they would only see the shadows? Yes, he said, To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the image".

            (Plato Republic Book-VII)

"Human beings living in an underground cave which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here they have been from their childhood and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before the, being prevented by chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players, have in front of them, over which they show the puppets".

This simile of Plato obviously is an assessment of human mind in reference to the ultimate nature of reality. In it may also be perceived a reflection on the historical development of human mind and its progress towards the point of ultimate reality of things from the beginning of humanity to the time of Plato himself. Also an apprehension that perhaps indeed the case may for ever remain so, to wit, that human mind might for ever remain incapable of approaching the point of ultimate reality. The fact is as manifest in this age in which human knowledge appears to have touched its highest pinnacle. Human mind, even today is nearly as far from he original image of the things as it was in the time of Plato over two millenniums ago Plato's particular trend of thought in this particular matter may possibly be traced to His Master Socrates' trend when we recall to our mind the well-known fact of Socrates' conviction of ignorance, and his conclusion that his wisdom rested in his awareness of his ignorance. Plato appears to have carried the concept further and have generalized it in a masterly way in his simile.

            Now keeping the contents of Plato’s simile in mind read the following from the Quran. It is strange to observe that such marvelous instances should remain so long, wrapped in mystery, and hidden from the sight of the well-versed scholars. The Quran says:-

"Y.S. (I swear) by the instructive Quran that thou art (one) of the messengers (of Allah sent to show) the right way. This is a revelation of most mighty, the merciful Allah that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned and who live in negligence. (Our) sentence has justly been pronounced against a greater part of them, wherefore they shall not believe. We have put yoken on their necks, which (come) upto their chins, and they are forced to hold up their heads; and we have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and thus have covered them with darkness, wherefore they shall not see. It shall be equal unto them whether thou preach unto them, or do not preach unto them, they shall not believe. But thou shalt preach (with effect) unto him only who followeth the admonition, and feareth the merciful in secret. Wherefore bear good tidings unto him of mercy and honourable reward. Lo. We it is who bring the dead to life. We record that which they send before (them) and their footprints. And all things we kept in a clear registrar".

            (Quran 36 +1 to 12)

Now judging these two similes in comparison, it appears that whereas Plato has viewed the idea from purely the intellectual point of view, that is now how far human intellect is capable of comprehending the basic, original picture of the reality, and has shown that the eye of the human mind saw only the shadows of the actual realities, the Quran has viewed the matter from the viewpoint of man’s capability for the lights of faith, faith being the reflector and the criterion of man’s comprehension of the basic reality. He only had the true comprehension of the original reality who had the capability for the comprehension of the light of faith. The entire description of Plato and the Quran touching the scene is similar. The trammels inmates of Plato’s cave, and the infidels among the mankind are identical. Let us see the points of the two similes in relevance.

Plato:-

"And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or un-enlightened.

QURAN

“Y.S. I swear by the instructive Quran, that thou art (O Mohammad), one of the messengers (of God) to show the right way”.

PLATO

            Behold human beings living in an underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave, here the have been from their childhood and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets.

QURAN

“A people whose fathers were not warned and who live in negligence.........on their necks we have placed chains which reach the chin, and forced up are their heads. Before them have We set a barrier and behind them a barrier, and we have shrouded them in avail, so that they shall not see”.

PLATO

“Here (in this cave) they have been from their childhood”.

QURAN

“That them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows o the images”.

QURAN

“Alike is it to them, if thou warn them or warn them not, they will not believe”.

But the Quran has carried the discussion further when it says.

            “Him only shalt thou really warn, who followeth the monition and feareth the God of Mercy is secret. Him cheer with tidings of pardon, and of a noble recompense. Verily We will restore the dead to life, and will write down (their works), which they shall have sent before them, and their footsteps (which they shall have left behind them) and everything do We set down in a plain register”.

 

 

                                                The end